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From: email@example.com (deadwolf)
Date: 24 Oct 91 15:21:57 GMT
Excerpts from "Smart Drugs & Nutrients" by Ward Dean MD & John Morgenthaler
Piracetam is reported to be an intelligence booster and CNS (central nervous
system) stimulant with no known toxicity or addictive properties. Piracetam
is inexpensive (under $0.85 per day) and available by mail (see appendix A.)
The subjective effect described by some people is that piracetam, "wakes up
your brain." You'll find more personal accounts of the effects of this
remarkable drug in the case histories and testimonials appendix. It's effects
and safety are so impressive that piracetam prompted the creation of a new
pharmaceutical category called nootropics.
The term nootropic comes from a Greek word meaning "acting on the mind".
Since the invention of piracetam by UCB Laboratories in Belgium, other
pharmaceutical companies have been scrambling to develop their own
nootropics. Some of them being researched now include; vinpocetine,
aniracetam, pramiracetam, and oxiracetam. As yet, there is no nootropic
compound that id FDA approved for sale in the US, but there is plenty of
motivation on the part of pharmaceutical companies to get that approval.
Financial analysts expect that the US market for these cognitive enhancers
will soon be in excess of $1-billion per year (Pelton, 1989).
Piracetam is very similar in molecular structure to the amino acid
pyroglutamate (see Pyroglutamate). Piracetam and pyroglutamate have the same
"base" chemical structure, the 2-oxo-pyrrolidine, but they differ by the side
chain. Pyroglutamate is 2-oxo-pyrrolidine carboxylic acid, and piracetam is
Piracetam enhances cognition under conditions of hypoxia (too little oxygen),
and also enhances memory and some kinds of learning in normal humans. Outside
of the US, piracetam is used to treat alcoholism, stroke, vertigo, senile
dementia, sickle cell anemia, dyslexia, and numerous other health problems
The effect of piracetam can be increased if taken with DMAE, centrophenoxine,
choline, or Hydergine. When choline and piracetam are taken together there is
a synergistic effect that causes a greater improvement in memory than the sum
of each when taken alone (Bartus, 1981).
We know of one person who claims she feels slightly agitated and depressed if
she takes piracetam for more than a week without a choline supplement. This
feeling is alleviated for her with a single dose of choline. It may be that
the piracetam causes acetylcholine to be used up more quickly and that the
choline helps to replace this important neurotransmitter.
Once fascinating study suggests that piracetam might increase the number of
cholinergic receptors in the brain. Older mice were given piracetam for two
weeks and then the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in their
frontal cortexes was measured. The researchers found that these older mice
had 30-40% higher density of these receptors than before. (Pilch, 1988).
Piracetam, unlike many other drugs, appears to have a regenerative effect on
the nervous system.
One theory of Alzheimer's disease is that the decline of intellectual
functions is partly caused by a decreased activity of the cholinergic system
in the brain caused by cell death and cell degeneration. The researchers in
the above study speculated that their findings could explain how piracetam
works and could also explain the finding of Bartus, et. al. regarding a
profound effect of combining choline with piracetam on memory enhancement of
As mentioned previously the late drug researcher Arthur Cherkin related to us
that he believed the combination of Hydergine and Piracetam potentiate each
other by 5 times. This highlights the importance of adjusting the dosage when
multiple substances are taken because, some of these substances will cause
paradoxical effects when excessive amounts are taken.
Although piracetam is a derivative of GABA (gamma amino butyric acid, a
neurotransmitter), there is no evidence that piracetam works through the
GABAergic system. Some research even suggests GABA may even inhibit memory
and learning (Zhang, 1989).
Precautions: Piracetam may increase the effects of certain drugs, such as
amphetamines, psychotropics, and Hydergine, as stated. Adverse effects are
rare but include insomnia, psychomotor agitation, nausea, gastrointestinal
distress, and headaches. Piracetam has virtually no known toxicity or
Dosage: Piracetam is supplied in 400mg or 800mg capsules or tablets. The
usual dose is 2400 to 4800 mg per day in three divided doses. Some literature
recommends that the first two days a high "attack" dose should be taken. We
have noticed that often when people first take piracetam they do not notice
any effect at all until they take a high dose (approximately 4000 to
8000mg). Thereafter, they may notice that a lower dosage is sufficient.
Piracetam takes effect within 30 to 60 minutes.
Sources: Piracetam is not sold in the US. It can be purchased over the
counter in Mexico or by mail form the sources listed in appendix A. Other
names include: Avigilen, Cerebroforte, Cerebrospan, Cetam, Dinagen,
Encefalux, Encetrop, Euvifor, gabacet, Genogris, Memo-Puren, Nootron,
Nootrop, Nootropil, Nootropyl, Normabrain, Norzetam, Pirroxil, Psycotron,
Stimucortex, and UCB-6215.
APPENDIX D: Testimonials & Case Histories
Testimonials and case histories are always suspect in scientific circles.
This is because the human mind is so powerful at producing the placebo
effect. Humans repeatedly experience powerful drug effects from taking
inactive substances when they believe that the substances are drugs. That is
why we rely on references to scientific research for the information we
We include this appendix of testimonials and case histories so that you may
orient yourself as to which substances you would like to try. If you would
like to share your experiences with us, whether they are similar or different
than the ones described here, please feel free to write to the authors c/o
B&J Publications, PO Box 483, Santa Cruz, CA 95061-0483.
"My secretary responded so well to piracetam (at doses of only 800mg) that I
decided to give her a small raise so she could afford it. She takes piracetam
instead of heading for the coffee machine. Every day she takes it she is
decidedly more alert, and intelligent acting and she smiles more. She is
overall a much better employee. She says it wakes up her brain." -JM
"Piracetam keeps me alert when I am driving. It also helps me to formulate
new and different ideas when I am taking essay tests in school." - DB
"I liked piracetam so much that I decided to try it with vincamine and
xanthinol nicotinate. I took standard doses of all three - 2400mg of
piracetam, 20mg of vincamine, and 300mg of xanthinol nicotinate. I actually
felt stupid! I had the "right on the tip of my tongue" response for hours.
Recently a friend suggested that I combine Hydergine with piracetam,
explaining that the two synergize each other, and that I should try a small
dose of each. I had tried Hydergine years ago and liked it a lot, but found
it prohibitively expensive. I decided to experiment with these two in
combination with ginkgo biloba. I started with what I thought were very small
quantities, 1/4mg of Hydergine, 200mg of piracetam, and 50mg of ginkgo, but
found the combination to be extraordinary. I've tried many different
cognitive enhancers, but this low-cost, low-dose combination is my favorite."
"I started taking piracetam with choline about a year ago and have found
this combination to be one of the best things that ever happened to me. I no
longer get extreme mood swings, I am much happier in general, and my
concentration and speaking ability is better. I also found that my
relationships with family and friends have improved, probably due to my
increased self confidence." - HH
"I took two grams of piracetam and, after 30 minutes, I began to find my
boyfriend much more sexually attractive. I assumed this was as fluke since I
had never heard of this effect from piracetam. Since this experience I have
taken piracetam every day for two months and every time, without fail, it has
the same effect. Piracetam has vastly improved my sex life." -DB
"Intelligence is the ultimate aphrodisiac." - Tim Leary