All about Gravity Waves - from Radio- Electronics A
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All About Gravitational Waves - by Gregory Hodowanec
Reproduced without permission from Radio-Electronics magazine April 1986
by The Trace - June 1, 1991
Are gravitational waves the source of noise in electronic devices? The
author believes so, and describes a simple circuit to detect the waves.
The author has developed a new cosmology that predicts the existance of
a new type of gravitational signal. We are publishing the results of
some of his experiments in the hope that it will foter experimentation
as well as alternate explanations for his results.
Einstein predicted the existence of gravity waves - the
counterpart of light and radio waves - many years ago. However, he
predicted the existence of quadrature-type gravity waves.
Unfortunately, no one has been able to detect quadrature-type gravity
Consequently, the author developed, over the years, a new
cosmology, or theory of the universe, in which monopole gravity waves
are predicted. The author's theory does not preclude the existence of
Einsteinian gravity waves, but they are viewed as being extremely weak,
very long in wavelength, and therefore very difficult to detect
unequivocally. Monopole signals, however, are relatively strong, so
they are much more easily detected.
Monopole gravity waves have been detected for many years; it's
just that we've been used to calling them 1/f "noise" signals or flicker
noise. Those noise signals can be seen in low-frequency electronic
circuits. More recently, such signals have been called Microwave
Background Radiation (MBR); most scientists believe that to be a relic
of the so-called "big bang" that created the universe.
In the author's cosmology, the universe is considered to be a
finite, spherical, closed system; in other words, it is a black body.
Monopole gravity waves "propagate" any distance in Planck time, which is
about 10^-44 seconds; hence, their effects appear everywhere almost
instantaneously. The sum total of background flux in the universe gives
rise to the observed microwave temperature, in our universe, of about
three degrees kelvin.
Sources of monopole gravity waves include common astrophysical
phenomena like supernovas, novas, starquakes, etc., as well as earthly
phenomena like earthquakes, core movements, etc. Those sorts of cosmic
and earthly events cause delectable temporary variations in the amount
of gravitational-impule radiation present in the universe.
Novas, especially supernovas (which are large exploding stars),
are very effective generators of oscillatory monopole gravity waves.
Those signals have a Gaussian waveshape and a lifetime of only a few
tens of milliseconds. They can readily impart a portion of their energy
to free particles like molecules, atoms, and electrons.
The background flux, in general, is fairly constant. Variations
in the backgrouns flux are caused by movements of large mass
concentrations like galaxies, super-galaxies, and black holes. These
movements create gravitational "shadows," analogous to optical shadows.
When the earth-moon-sun alignment is just right, the gravtational shadow
of a small, highly concentrated mass -- a black hole, for example -- can
be detected and tracked from the Earth. So, keeping those facts in
mind, let's look at several practical methods of detecting gravitational
Electrons and Capacitors
As stated above, gravity-wave energy can be imparted to ordinary
objects. Of special interest to us are the loosely-bound electrons in
ordinary capacitors. Perhaps you have wondered how a discharged
high-valued electrolytic capacitor (say 1000 uF at 35 volts) can develop
a charge even though it is disconnected from an electrical circuit.
While some of that charging could be attributed to a chemical
reaction in the capacitor, I believe that much of it is caused by
gravity-wave impulses bathing the capacitor at all times. And the means
by which gravity waves transfer energy is similar to another means of
energy transfer that is well known to readers of Radio-Electronics: the
As shown in Fig. 1-a, the presence of a large mass near the
plates of a capacitor causes a polarized alignment of the molecules in
the capacitor, as though an external DC voltage had been applied to the
capacitor, as shown in Fig. 1-b.
You can verify that yourself: Drop a fully-discharged 1000-uF,
35-volt electrolytic capacitor broadside on a hard surface from a height
of two or three feet. Then measure the voltage across the capacitor
with a high-impedance voltmeter. You will find a voltage of about 10 to
50 mV. Drop the capacitor several times on opposite sides, don't let it
bounce, and note how charge builds up to a saturation level that may be
as high as one volt.
In that experiment, the energy of free-fall is converted to
polarization energy in the capacitor. The loosely-bound electrons are
literally "jarred" into new polarization positions. In a similar
manner, gravitational impulses from space "jar" electrons into new
Here's another experiment: Monitor a group of similar capacitors
that have reached equilibrium conditions while being bathed by normal
background gravitational impulses. You'll observe that, over a period
of time, the voltage across all those open-circuited capacitors will be
equal, and that it will depend only on the average background flux at
the time. Temperature should be kept constant for that experiment.
I interpret those facts to mean that a capacitor develops a
charge that reflects the monopole gravity-wave signals existing at that
particular location in the universe. So, although another device could
be used, we will use a capacitor as the sensing element in the
gravity-wave detectors described next.
The simplest detector
Monopole gravity waves generate small impulse currents that may
be coupled to an op-amp configured as a current-to-voltage converter, as
shown in Fig. 2. The current-to-voltage converter is a nearly lossless
current-measuring device. It gives an output voltage that is
proportional to the product of the input current (which can be in the
picoampere range) and resistor R1. Linearity is assured because the
non-DC-connected capacitor maintains the op-amp's input terminals at
The detector's output may be coupled to a high-impedance digital
or analog voltmeter, an audio amplifier, or an oscilloscope. In
addition, a chart recorder could be used to record the DC output over a
period of time, thus providing a record of long-term "shadow-drift"
effects. Resistor R2 and capacitor C2 protect the output of the
circuit; their values will depend on what you're driving. To
experiment, try a 1k resistor and a 0.1 uF capacitor.
The output of the detector (Eo) may appear in two forms,
depending on whether or not stabilizing capacitor Cx is connected. When
it is, the output will be highly amplified 1/f noise signals, as shown
in Fig. 3-a. Without Cx, the circuit becomes a "ringing" circuit with a
slowly-decaying output that has a resonant frequency of 500-600 Hz for
the component values shown. In that configuration, the circuit is a
Quantum Non-Demolition (QND) circuit, as astrophysicists call it; it
will now actually display the amplitude variations (waveshapes) of the
passing gravitational-impulse bursts, as shown in Fig. 3-b.
An interesting variation on the detector may be built by
increasing the value of sensing capacitor C1 to about 1000-1600 uF.
After circuit stability is achieved, the circuit will respond to almost
all gravity-wave signals in the universe. By listening carefully to the
audio output of the detector you can hear not only normal 1/f noise, but
also many "musical" sounds of space, as well as other effects that will
not be disclosed here.
An improved detector
Adding a buffer stage to the basic circuit, as shown in Fig. 4,
makes the detector easier to work with. The IC used is a common 1458
(which is a dual 741). One op-amp is used as the detector, and the
other op-amp multiplies the detector's output by a factor of 20.
Potentiometer R3 is used to adjust the output to the desired level.
When used unshielded, the circuits presented here are not only
sensitive detectors of gravitational impulses, but also of
*electromagnetic* signals ranging from 50-500 GHz! Hence, these
circuits could be used to detect many types of signals, including radar
To detect only gravity waves, and not EMI, the circuit should be
shielded against all electromagnetic radiation. Both circuits are low
in cost and easy to build. Assembly is non-critical, although proper
wiring practices should be followed. Initially, you should use the
op-amps specified; don't experiment with other devices until you attain
satisfactory results with the devices called for. Later you can
experiment with other components, like low-poer op-amps, especially CMOS
types, which have diodes across their inputs to protect them against
high input voltages. Those diodes make them much less sensitive to
electromagnetic radiation, so circuits that use those devices may be
used to detect gravity-waves without shielding.
The circuit in Fig. 4 is the QND or ringing type, but the
feedback resistance is variable from 0.5 to 2 megohms. That allows you
to tune the circuit to the natural oscillating frequency of different
astrophysical events. Huge supernova bursts, for example, have much
larger amplitudes, and much lower frequencies of oscillation than normal
supernovas and novas. Hence you can tune the detector for the supernova
burst rate that interests you. With the component values given in Fig.
4, the resonant frequency of the circuitcan be varied between 300-900
Hz. The circuit of Fig. 4, or a variant thereof, was used to obtain all
the experimental data discussed below.
In addition, the circuits that we've described in this article
were built in an aluminum chassis and then located within an additional
steel box to reduce pickup of stray EMI. Power and output connections
were made through filter-type feedthrough capacitors.
In the QND mode, coupling the detector's output to an audio
amplifier and an oscilloscope gives impressive sound and sight effects.
Fluctuations generally reflect passing gravitational shadows. The
author has taken much data of the sort to be discussed; let's examine a
few samples of that data to indicate the kind of results you can expect,
and ways of interpreting those results.
Shown in Fig. 5 is an unusual structure that was repeated
exactly the next day, but four minutes earlier. The pattern was
followed for several weeks, moving four minutes earlier per day. That
confirms the observation that the burst response of the detector was
related to our location on earth with respect to the rest of the
universe. The change of four minutes per day corresponds with the
relative movements of the earth and the body that was casting the
The plot of Fig. 6 appears to be a supernova, probably in our
own galaxy, caught in the act of exploding. The plot of Fig. 7 was made
four days after another supernova explosion; that plot reveals that that
supernova left a well-developed black hole and "ring" structure. You
may find it interesting to consider that visual indications of those
supernovas will not be seen for several thousand years! As such, it
might be "quite a while" before we get a visual confirmation of our
Last, Fig. 8 shows a plot of the moon's gravitational shadow
during the eclipse of May 30, 1984. Note that the gravitational shadow
preceded the optical shadow by about eight minutes! That gives credence
to our claim that gravitational effects propagate instantaneously.
Relatedly, but not shown here, a deep shadow is consistently detected
whenever the center of the galaxy appears on the meridian (180 degrees)
hinting of the existence of a "black hole" in that region.
In this article we discussed the highlights of a new theory of
the universe that predicts the existence of monopole gravity waves. We
then presented details of a circuit that can be used to detect monopole
gravity waves. The author has monitored those signals for ten years so
is confident that you will be able to duplicate those results. Needless
to say, the subject of gravity waves is a largely unexplored one, and
there is much yet to be learned. Perhaps this article will inspire you
to contribute to that knowledge. In your experiments, you might
consider trying the following: Operate several detector circuits at the
same time and record the results. Separate the detectors -- even by
many miles -- and record their outputs. In such experiments, the author
found that the circuits' outputs were very similar. Those results would
seem to count out local EMI or pure random noise as the cause of the
For more information on the subject of gravity you might consult
_Gravitation_ by C. Misner, K. Thorne, and J. Wheeler, published by W.H.
Freeman and Co., 1973. Also, the article, "Quantum Non-Demolition
Measurements" in _Science_, Volume 209, August 1 1980 contains useful
information on the QND type of measurement used here.
Sidebar: Rhysmonic Cosmology
Ancient and Renaissance physicists postulated the existence of
an all-pervasive medium they called the _ether_. Since the advent of
sub-atomic physics and relativity, theories of the ether have fallen
into disuse. Rhysmonic cosmology postulates the existence of rhysmons,
which are the fundamental particles of nature, and which pervade the
universe, as does the ether.
Each rhysmon has the attributes of size, shape, position, and
velocity; rhysmons are arranged in space in a matrix structure, the
density of which varies according to position in the universe. The
matrix structure of rhysmons in free space gives rise to the fundamental
units of length, time, velocity, mass, volume, denisty, and energy
discovered by physicist Max Planck.
Fundamental postulates of the Rhysmonic Universe can be
summarized as follows:
o The universe is finite and spherical
o Euclidean geometry is sufficient to describe Rhysmonic Space.
o The edge of the universe is a perfect reflector of energy.
o Matter forms only in the central portion of the universe.
The matrix structure of rhysmons allows the instantaneous
transmission of energy along a straight line, called an energy vector,
from the point of origin to the edge of the universe, where it would be
reflected according to laws similar those giverning spherical optics.
In Rhysmonic Cosmology, mass, inertia, and energy are treated as
they are in classical mechanics. Mass arises, according to the author,
because "particles in rhysmonic cosmology must be the result of changes
in the `density' of the rhysmonic structure, since the universe is
nothing more than rhysmons and the void."
In a "dense" area of the universe, such as the core of a
particle, a number of rhysmons are squeezed togther. This means that
every particle has a correlating anti-particle, or an area of
correspondingly low density. In addition, a particle has an excess of
outward-directed energy vectors, and an anti-particle has an excess of
inward-directed energy vectors. Those vectors are what we usually call
Gravity is not a force of attraction between objects; rather,
two objects are impelled towards each other by energy vectors impinging
on the surfaces of those objects that do not face each other. Netwon's
laws of gravitation hold, although their derivation is different than in
Gravitational waves arise in various ways, but, in general, a
large astronomical disturbance, such as the explosion of a supernova,
instantaneously modulates the rhysmonic energy vectors. That modulation
might then appear, for example, superimposed on the Earth's
gravitaional-field flux -- and it would be detectable by circuits like
those described here.
Fig. 2 - A Basic gravity-wave detector is very
- - - - )| - - - - - - - - - simple. The charge build-up on capacitor C1
. Cx 470pF . due to gravity-wave impulses is amplified by
. . IC1 for output.
. R1 1.3M . R2 see text
o----v^v^v^----------------o -----v^v^v^--------------------O DC Output
| | |
| ^ | |
| _ | +9V | |
| 2| \_|7 | |
o---------| \_ | |
_|_ |IC1 \_ 6 | | C2 see text
___ C1 | 741 _>--------o---o-----|(-----------------------O Audio Output
| .22 3| _/
| |_/ |
| v -9V
R1 500K R2 1.5M R5 100K |
| ^ | | |
| | | | |
| _ |___| | _ ^ +9V |
| 2| \_ | | 6| \_ | |
o---------| \_ | o------| \_|8 |
_|_C1 |IC1-a\_ 1 | >R4 |IC1-b\_ 7 |
___ .22 |1/2 _>-----o >5K |1/2 _>-----------------|
| 3|1458_/ | > 5|1458_/
o---------| _/ R3> | |---| _/ |4
| |_/ 10K><---| | |_/ |
| > | v -9V
| | |
Fig. 4 -- A buffered output stage makes the gravity-wave detector easier
Parts List - Simple Detector Parts List - Buffered Detector
All resistors 1/4-watt, 5%. All fixed resistors 1/4-watt, 5%.
R1 - 1.3 megohm R1 - 500,000 ohms
R2 - see text R2 - 1.5 megohms, potentiometer
Capacitors R3 - 10,000 ohms, potentiometer
C1 - 0.22 uF R4 - 5000 ohms
C2 - see text R5 - 100,000 ohms
Cx - see text Capacitors
Semiconductors C1 - 0.22 uF
IC1 - 741 op-amp Semiconductors
IC1 - 1458 dual op-amp
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