Massive guide (complete I might also add) to hacki
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% THE NEOPHYTE'S GUIDE TO HACKING %
% =============================== %
% 1993 Edition %
% Completed on 08/28/93 %
% by %
%% >>>>> Deicide <<<<< %%
< The author of this file grants permission to reproduce and >
< redistribute this file in any way the reader sees fit, >
< including the inclusion of this file in newsletters of any >
< media, provided the file is kept whole and complete, >
< without any modifications, deletions or ommissions. >
< © 1993, Deicide >
Over four years ago the final version of the LOD/H's Novice's Guide to
Hacking was created and distributed, and during the years since it has served
as a much needed source of knowledge for the many hackers just beginning to
explore the wonders of system penetration and exploration.
The guide was much needed by the throng of newbies who hadn't the
slightest clue what a VAX was, but were eager to learn the arcane art of
hacking. Many of today's greats and moderates alike relied the guide as a
valuable reference during their tentative(or not) steps into the nets.
However, time has taken it's toll on the silicon networks and the guide is
now a tad out of date. The basic manufacturer defaults are now usually secured
, and more operating systems have come on the scene to take a large chunk of
the OS percentile. In over four years not one good attempt at a sequel has
been made, for reasons unbeknownst to me.
So, I decided to take it upon myself to create my own guide to hacking..
the "Neophyte's Guide to Hacking" (hey..no laughing!) in the hopes that it
might help others in furthering their explorations of the nets.
This guide is modelled after the original, mainly due to the fact that the
original *was* good. New sections have been added, and old sections expanded
upon. However, this is in no means just an update, it is an entirely new guide
as you'll see by the difference in size. This guide turned out to be over 4
times the size of The Mentor's guide.
Also, this guide is NOT an actual "sequel" to the original; it is not
LOD/H sponsored or authorized or whatever, mainly because the LOD/H is now
One last thing.. this guide is in no way complete. There are many OS's I
did not include, the main reasons being their rarity or my non-expertise with
them. All the major OS's are covered, but in future releases I wish to include
Wang, MVS, CICS, TSO, SimVTAM, Qinter, IMS, VOS, RSX, and many more. If you
feel you could help, contact me by Internet email or on a board or net(if you
can find me). Same thing applies for further expansion of current topics and
operating systems, please contact me.
AT&T's Sys75/85 was not included in this release. Reason being is although
I have the defaults I have no practical experience with Sys75 and I didn't
believe I could do it justice. We don't have them in my area of Western Canada
, and I don't like using other peoples accounts(I was given a few). If you
want to assist with the Sys75 area for next release, feel free to contact me.
Ok, a rather long intro, but fuck it.. enjoy as you wish..
Deicide - firstname.lastname@example.org
One of the most integral parts of a hacker's mindset is his set of ethics.
And ethics frequently go hand in hand with safety, which is obviously the most
critical part of the process of hacking and the system exploration, if you
plan to spend your life outside of the gaol.
A hacker's ethics are generally somewhat different from that of an average
joe. An average joe would be taught that it is bad to break laws, even though
most do anyways. I am encouraging you to break laws, but in the quest for
knowledge. In my mind, if hacking is done with the right intentions it is not
all that criminal. The media likes to make us out to be psychotic sociopaths
bent on causing armageddon with our PCs. Not likely. I could probably turn the
tables on the fearmongering media by showing that the average joe who cheats
on his taxes is harming the system more than a curious interloper, but I
refrain.. let them wallow..
The one thing a hacker must never do is maliciously hack(also known
as crash, trash, etc..) a system. Deleting and modifying files unnecessary is
BAD. It serves no purpose but to send the sysadmins on a warhunt for your head
, and to take away your account. Lame. Don't do it.
Anyways, if you don't understand all of these, just do your best to follow
them, and take my word for it. You'll understand the reasoning behind these
I. Don't ever maliciously hack a system. Do not delete or modify files
unnecessarily, or intentionally slow down or crash a system.
The lone exception to this rule is the modification of system logs and
audit trails to hide your tracks.
II. Don't give your name or real phone number to ANYONE, it doesn't matter
who they are. Some of the most famous phreaks have turned narcs because
they've been busted, and they will turn you in if you give them a
chance. It's been said that one out of every three hackers is a fed, and
while this is an exaggeration, use this as a rule and you should do
fine. Meet them on a loop, alliance, bbs, chat system, whatever, just
don't give out your voice number.
III. Stay away from government computers. You will find out very fast that
attempting to hack a MilTac installation is next to impossible, and will
get you arrested before you can say "oh shit". Big Brother has infinite
resources to draw on, and has all the time it needs to hunt you down.
They will spend literally years tracking you down. As tempting as it may
be, don't rush into it, you'll regret it in the end.
IV. Don't use codes from your own home, ever! Period. This is the most
incredibly lame thing i've seen throughout my life in the 'underground';
incredible abuse of codes, which has been the downfall of so many people.
Most PBX/950/800s have ANI, and using them will eventually get you
busted, without question. And calling cards are an even worse idea.
Codes are a form of pseudo-phreaking which have nothing to do with the
exploration of the telephone networks, which is what phreaking is about.
If you are too lazy to field phreak or be inventive, then forget about
V. Don't incriminate others, no matter how bad you hate them. Turning in
people over a dispute is a terrible way to solve things; kick their ass,
shut off their phones/power/water, whatever, just don't bust them.
It will come back to you in the end..
VI. Watch what you post. Don't post accounts or codes over open nets as a
rule. They will die within days, and you will lose your new treasure.
And the posting of credit card numbers is indeed a criminal offense
under a law passed in the Reagan years.
VII. Don't card items. This is actually a worse idea than using codes, the
chances of getting busted are very high.
VIII. If for some reason you have to use codes, use your own, and nothing
else. Never use a code you see on a board, because chances are it has
been abused beyond belief and it is already being monitored.
IX. Feel free to ask questions, but keep them within reason. People won't
always be willing to hand out rare accounts, and if this is the case
don't be surprised. Keep the questions technical as a rule. Try and
learn as much as you can from pure hands on experience
X. And finally, be somewhat paranoid. Use PGP to encrypt your files, keep
your notes/printouts stored secretly, whatever you can do to prolong
your stay in the h/p world.
XI. If you get busted, don't tell the authorities ANYTHING. Refuse to speak
to them without a lawyer present.
XII. If police arrive at your residence to serve a search warrant, look it
over carefully, it is your right. Know what they can and can't do, and
if they can't do something, make sure they don't.
XIII. If at all possible, try not to hack off your own phoneline. Splice your
neighbour's line, call from a Fortress Fone, phreak off a junction box,
whatever.. if you hack long enough, chances are one day you'll be
traced or ANI'd.
Don't believe you are entirely safe on packet-switched networks either,
it takes a while but if you scan/hack off your local access point they
will put a trace on it.
XIV. Make the tracking of yourself as difficult as possible for others.
Bounce the call off several outdials, or try to go through at least two
different telco companies when making a call to a dialup.
When on a packet-switched network or a local or wide area network,
try and bounce the call off various pads or through other networks
before you reach your destination. The more bounces, the more red tape
for the investigator and the easier it is for you to make a clean
Try not to stay on any system for *too* long, and alternate your calling
times and dates.
XV. Do not keep written notes! Keep all information on computer, encrypted
with PGP or another military-standard encryption program.
Written notes will only serve to incriminate you in a court of law.
If you write something down originally, shred the paper.. itty bitty
pieces is best, or even better, burn it! Feds DO trash, just like us,
and throwing out your notes complete will land in their hands, and
they'll use it against you.
XVI. Finally, the day/night calling controversy. Some folks think it is a
better idea to call during the day(or whenever the user would normally
use his account) as to not arouse the sysadmin's suspicion of abnormal
calling times, while others think it is better to call when nobody is
This is a tough one, as there is no real answer. If the sysadmin keeps
logs(and reads over them) he will definetly think it strange that a
secretary calls in at 3 am.. he will probably then look closer and find
it even stranger that the secretary then grabbed the password file and
proceeded to set him/herself up with a root shell.
On the other hand, if you call during the time the user would normally
call, the real owner of the account may very well log in to see his
name already there, or even worse be denied access because his account
is already in use.
In the end, it is down to your opinion.
And remember, when you make a decision stick to it; remember the time
WHERE TO START
Probably the hardest period in hacking is that of when you are first
starting. Finding and penetrating your first system is a major step, and can
be approached in many ways. The common ways to find a system to hack are;
- UNIVERSITIES : Universities commonly have hundreds of users, many of
which aren't too computer literate, which makes
hacking a relatively simple chore. And security is
often poor, so if you don't abuse the system too much
your stay could be a long one.
On the other hand, for a nominal fee you can usually
pick up a cheap *legitimate* (now there's a concept)
account. Or you could enroll in the university for
a few credits, and just go until the accounts are
handed out. Unfortunely, if you are caught hacking
off your own account it won't be hard to trace it
back to you. If you get a legimate account at first,
you might be best to hack a student's account for your
The other fun part about universities is often they
will provide access to a number of nets, usually
including the Internet.
Occasionally you'll have access to a PSN as well.
- CARRIER SCANNING: Carrier scanning in your LATA(Local Access Transport
Area), commonly known as wardialing, was popularized
in the movie War Games.
Unfortunely, there are a few problems inherent in
finding systems this way; you are limited to the
systems in your area, so if you have a small town you
may find very little of interest, and secondly,
ANI is a problem within your own LATA, and tracing is
simple, making security risks high. If you are going
to hack a system within your own lata, bounce it at
There are many programs, such as ToneLoc and CodeThief
(ToneLoc being superior to all in my humble opinion),
which will automate this process.
- PACKET-SWITCHED : This is my favorite by far, as hacking on PSNs is how
NETWORKS I learned nearly all I know. I've explored PSNs
world-wide, and never ran out of systems to hack.
No matter what PSN you try you will find many
different, hackable systems. I will go more indepth
on PSNs in the next section.
Intro to PSNs
First off, PSNs are also known as PSDNs, PSDCNs, PSSs and VANs to name
a few. Look up the acronyms in the handy acronym reference chart<g>.
The X.25 PSNs you will hear about the most are; Sprintnet(formerly
Telenet), BT Tymnet(the largest), and Datapac(Canada's largest).
All these networks have advantages and disadvantages, but i'll say this;
if you are in the United States, start with Sprintnet. If you are in Canada,
Datapac is for you.
The reason PSNs are so popular for hackers are many. There are literally
thousands of systems on PSNs all around the world, all of which(if you have
the right facilities) are free of charge for you to reach. And because of the
immense size of public PSNs, it is a rare thing to ever get caught for
scanning. Tracing is also a complicated matter, especially with a small
amount of effort on your part to avoid a trace.
How packet-switching works
The following explanation applies for the most part to all forms of
packet-switching, but is specifically about PSNs operating on the X.25
protocol, such as Datapac & SprintNet, as opposed to the Internet which
operates on TCP/IP. It is the same principle in essense, however.
Packet-Switched Networks are kinda complicated, but I'll attempt to
simplify the technology enough to make it easy to understand.
You, the user, connect to the local public access port for your PSN,
reachable via a phone dialup. You match communications parameters with the
network host and you are ready to go.
From there, all the data you send across the network is first bundled into
packets, usually of 128 or 256 bytes. These packets are assembled using
Packet Assembly/Disassembly, performed by the public access port, also known
as a public PAD(Packet Assembler/Disassembler), or a DCE(Data Communicating
Equipment or Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment).
The packets are sent along the network to their destination by means of
the various X protocols, standardly X.25 within your home network, and
internationally using X.75/X.121. The X protocol series are the accepted CCITT
The host system(DTE: Data Terminal Equipment, also a PAD) which you are
calling then receives the packet and disassembles the packet using Packet
Assembly/Disassembly once again into data the system understands.
The DTE then assembles it's data in response to your packet, and sends it
back over the network to your PAD in packet form, which disassembles the
packet into readable data for you, the user.
And that is the simplified version!
The Internet - Introduction
Contrary to popular belief, the Internet is a packet-switched network;
just not an X.25 packet-switched network. The Internet operates on the TCP/IP
protocols(as a rule), which is why it is sometimes disregarded as a
packet-switched network. In fact, the Internet's predecessor, the ARPAnet,
was the first large-scale experiment in packet-switching technology. What was
then Telenet came later.
The confusion comes from peoples ignorance of the principles of
packet-switching, which is simply a type of network, explained in technical
detail earlier. It doesn't matter what protocols the network may use, if
packet-switching is in use it is obviously a packet-switched network.
Ok, now you may have noticed that the Internet has a rather small section,
which is true. The reasons are many. This is a hacking guide, not an Internet
tutorial, so I didn't include the IRC or Archie or whatever. And the main
reason is I spent about 100% more time on X.25 nets than I did the Internet.
Nonetheless, I decided to include the essential aspects of the Internet.
You should be able to take it from there.
The following section is derived mostly from personal experience, but
the Gatsby's Internet file helped out somewhat, specifically in the classes
of IP addresses.
Getting access is somewhere between easy and very difficult, depending
where you live and how good(or lucky!) a hacker you are.
First of all, if you are going to hack on the Internet then you must be
on a system that has full Internet access, not just mail. That cuts Compuserve
and Prodigy out of the picture.
Most universities and some high schools have Internet access, see what
you can do to get yourself an account, legitimatly or not.
Some BBSes offer full Internet access for a fairly reasonable price, and
that would be a good choice.
If you are in an area with a FreeNet, then you get full Internet access..
for free! Check around with local hackers or PD boards to inquire where the
nearest FreeNet is.
Some businesses provide Internet access, for a price. Check with local
netters to see what local options there are.
And lastly, you can try and hack your way on. When you hack a system,
check and see if they are on the net. Usually this is accomplished by doing
a test call using telnet.. explained later.
FTP is the acronym for File Transfer Protocol, and it is the primary means
of transporting remote files onto your own system(actually, usually the
system which you are calling the Internet through).
I will only provide a brief overview, as FTP is fairly easy to use, has
help files online and comprehensive documentation offline at your local h/p
First off, FTP can be initialized by typing 'ftp' at any system which
has it. Most do, even if they don't have the Internet online. That a
frustrating lesson more than a few novices has learned.. if you hack into a
system that has FTP or telnet on line, it does not necessarily(and usually
doesn't) have Internet access.
When you enter the FTP utility, you'll usually find yourself at a 'ftp>'
prompt, and typing 'help' should bring up a small set of help files. The
commands available, along with the help files, vary from system to system.
Procedure is then defined by what type of system you are on, as again,
it varies. But what you usually do next is open a connection to the system you
want to get a file off of. Type 'open' followed by the host name or IP
address of the system you wish to connect to.. explained later.
Next, you will usually find yourself at a sort of login prompt. If you
have a username on that system, then type it in. If not, try 'anonymous'.
Anonymous is a great little guest account that is now being built in to some
OS's. Conscientious sysadmins may disable it, for obvious reasons. If however,
it is not, you will be asked for a password. Type anything, it doesn't matter
really. Type a few d's if you want, it really doesn't matter(as a rule don't
sit on your keyboard though.. it may not like it.. type something boring).
Next you simply use the 'get' command to get the file you want. Usually
it is a good idea to not put the files in a directory that they will be
noticed.. the sysadmin will suspect something is up if he runs into a few
files that he supposedly copied into his own directory. Which brings us to
the next segment.. give your files benign names, especially if they are
something like /etc/passwd files or issues of Phrack.
Now quit the FTP utility and peruse your new files.. be sure to remove
them when done.
While FTP has no real parallel in X.25 networks, you could equate telnet
to a private PAD. Telnet lets you connect to and operate on Internet systems
over the Internet as if you were connected locally.
Telnet is initialized by typing 'telnet' at your shell. The operative
command is, again, 'open'. Again, type 'open' followed by the domain name
or the IP address. When connected, you will be at a login prompt of some
kind(usually..). Enter a username if you have one, and if not you can either
attempt to hack one or see if the system accepts the 'anonymous' guest user,
explained in the FTP section.
If all goes well, you should have a remote connection of some kind, and
what follows depends on the system you are connected to, just like in any
Domain Names and IP Addresses - Intro
For those of you unfamiliar with those terms I will give a small,
condensed explanation of what the two are.
One or the other is needed for connecting to a remote system, either by
FTP or Telnet. The IP address could be equated to the X.25 net's Network User
Address. The Domain name is a mnemonic name, used for convience more than
anything, as it is generally easier to remember.
If you wish to scan for systems on the Internet it is usually much easier
to scan by IP address, as you won't know the mnemonic for most systems.
IP addresses are 4 digit-combinations separated by dots. Address examples
are 18.104.22.168(EFF) and 22.214.171.124(MIT).
Addresses fall into three classes;
Class A - 0 to 127
Class B - 128 to 191
Class C - 192 to 223
The earliest Internet systems are all in Class A, but it is more common
to find class B or C systems. Moreover, a lot of systems are placed
specifically in the 128 or 192 address prefix, as opposed to 184 or 201 or
whatever. Scanning an IP address set can be accomplished in many fashions.
One of which would be to pick a prefix, add two random one to two digit
numbers, and scan the last portion. ie: take 192.15.43 and scan the last
digit from 0 to 255.
Unfortunely, the last portion (or last two portions in the case of Class
C) are ports, meaning you may come up completely blank or you might hit the
Experiment to your own liking, after a while you will fall into a
You can also connect to specific systems using the domain name, if you
know or can guess the domain name. To guess a domain name you will need to
know the company or organization's name, and the type of organization it is.
This is possible because host names must follow the Domain Name System, which
makes guessing a lot easier. Once you have both, you can usually take a few
educated guesses at the domain name. Some are easier than others.
First of all, you will need to understand the principle of top-level
domains. The top level is at the end of a domain name; in the case of eff.org,
the top-level is 'org'. In the case of mit.edu, the top-level is 'edu'.
Top levels fall into a few categories;
com - commercial institutions
org - non-profit organizations
edu - educational facilities
net - networks
gov - government systems (non military)
mil - non-classified military
Along with various country codes. The country codes are two letters used
for international calls; the US's is 'US', Brazil's is 'BR'.
Determine which top-level the system falls under, and then make a few
guesses. Examples are;
For further reading, I suggest picking up a few of the printed Internet
guides currently on the market, as well as the Gatsby's file on the Internet,
printed in Phrack 33.
From here on in the PSN section of this file is dedicated to X.25
networks. I use the acronym PSN interchangably with X.25 networks, so don't
get PSN confused with all the other types of PSN networks. From here on in,
it is all X.25.
Network User Addresses
NUAs(Network User Addresses) are the PSNs equivalent of a phone number.
They are what you need to connect to systems on PSNs around the world, and
thanks to the DNIC(Data Network Identifier Code), there are no two the same.
The format for entering NUAs is different from PSN to PSN. For example,
on Datapac you must include 0's, but on Sprintnet 0's are not necessary.
Tymnet uses 6 digits NUAs rather than the standard 8.
But the standard NUA format is this;
Where; P is the pre-DNIC digit
D is the DNIC
X is the NUA
S is the LCN(Logical Channel Number, subaddressing)
M is the Mnemonic
Various segments may be omitted depending on your PSN and where you are
The P is commonly a 0, but is a 1 on Datapac. It is not usually even counted
as part of the NUA, but must be included(usage varying) when making calls
to another PSN other than your own. Within your own PSN it is not necessary
to include the pre DNIC digit.
The D is the DNIC also known as the DCC(Data Country Code). The DNIC is the
4 digit country code, which insures that each NUA worldwide is unique. The
DNIC is only used in calling international NUAs. If you are in Datapac(DNIC
3020) you do not have to include the DNIC for Datapac when making calls to
NUAs within Datapac, but if you are in another PSN you must include the DNIC
for calls to Datapac.
The X symbolizes the actual NUA, which along with the optional S
(subaddressing) must always be included. You can simplify the NUA even greater
using this format;
Where P is the prefix of the NUA, and the X's are the suffix. The prefix
corresponds to an Area Code in most cases in that the NUAs within that prefix
are in a certain part of the country the PSN serves. In the case of Sprintnet,
the prefix corresponds directly with the Area Code(ie: all NUAs in the 914
prefix on Sprintnet are in New York, and all phone numbers in the 914 Area
Code are in New York).
Subaddressing, S on the diagram, is a somewhat complicated thing to explain.
Subaddressing is used when desired by the owner of the DTE, and is used to
connect to specified system on the same NUA. You may find more than one system
on the same NUA, and these can be reached using subaddresses.
Ex.1 12300456 Unix
Ex.2 123004561 VMS
Ex.3 1230045699 HP3000
In this example, the normal NUA is 12300456(assuming DNIC and pre-DNIC digit
are not used). This NUA takes you to a Unix system. But when the LCN(Logical
Channel Number, subaddress) of 1 is used, you are taken to a VMS. And the
subaddress of 99 takes you to a HP3000. The systems on 12300456 are all owned
by the same person/company, who wished to have one NUA only, but by using
subaddresses he can give access to multiple systems on a lone NUA.
Subaddresses are also used occasionally as extra security. If you hit a system
that gives you an error message such as 'REMOTE PROCEDURE ERROR' or 'REMOTE
DIRECTIVE', you will either need a subaddress or a mnemonic. You may choose to
go through the entire possible subaddresses, 1 to 99, or if you are just
scanning i would suggest these: 1,2,50,51,91,98,99
Mnemonics, M, are another tricky one to explain. They are not documented by
the PSNs, I discovered them on my own. Mnemonics are also used to select
systems on a single NUA as a kind of port selector, but they are more commonly
used as a kind of external password, which prevents you from even seeing the
system in question.
The same error messages as in LCNs occur for mnemonics, but again, even if you
can reach a system with a standard NUA, there is a possibly a system only
reachable by mnemonic exists. Here is a list of commonly used mnemonics;
SYSTEM CONSOLE PAD DIAL MODEM X25 X28 X29 SYS HOST
Bypassing Reverse Charging Systems: Private PADs and NUIs
Occasionally on PSNs you will run into systems which give you the
error message 'COLLECT CALL REFUSED'. This denotes a reverse-charging system.
When you make a call to a system on a PSN, the call is automatically collect.
But a lot of sysadmins do not want to pay for your connect charges, and if all
of their users have NUIs or private PADs, it is a good idea for them to make
their system reverse-charging, which saves them money, but also acts as yet
another security barrier from casual snoopers.
But again, this can be avoided by using a private PAD or a NUI.
Before we go into the details of these, remember that a private PAD is a
different thing than your public access port PAD. A private PAD is a PAD which
automatically assumes all connect charges. So, the reverse charging systems
will let you past the reverse charging, as you agree to accept the charges.
NUI's(Network User Identifiers) work the same way. You can think of a NUI
as .. say a Calling Card. The Calling Card is billed for all the charges made
on it, regardless of who made them; the owner gets the bill. The NUI works the
same way. NUIs are used legitimatly by users willing to accept the connect
charges. But, as hackers are known to do, these NUIs get stolen and used to
call all NUAs all around the world, and the legitimate owner gets the bill.
But unlike CCs, you will usually get away with using a NUI.
However, as you can guess, private PADs and NUIs are fairly hard to come
by. If somebody manages to get ahold of one, they usually won't be willing to
share it. So, it comes down to you; you probably will have to find your own.
PADs are only found by scanning on PSNs, and by hacking onto systems on
PSNs. There are programs on Unix and Primos systems,for example, that serve as
a private PAD. And there are some private PADs that are set up solely for the
purpose of being a private PAD. But, these are almost always passworded, so it
is up to you to get in.
NUIs are somewhat the same thing. NUIs are different from PSN to PSN, some
will tell you if a NUI is wrong, letting you guess one, but others will not.
And of course, you still have to guess the password. I've heard stories of
people carding NUIs, but i'm not sure i quite believe it, and the safety of
such a practice is questionable.
Closed User Groups
One of the most effective security measures i've ever seen is the CUG
(Closed User Group). The CUG is what generates the 'CALL BLOCKED' message when
scanning on PSNs. A CUG will only accept calls into the DTE from specified
DCE NUAs. Meaning, if your NUA has not been entered into the list of
acceptable NUAs, you won't be allowed to even see the system. However, CUGs
aren't for everybody. If you have a system with many users that all call in
from different points, CUGs are unusable. And a good thing for us. I've never
heard of anyone finding a way past a CUG. I've got a few theories but..
Now i'll go a bit more into the major US and Canadian PSNs, starting with
the most popular in the States, Sprintnet
To find a public indial port for Sprintnet you may possibly be able to
find it in your telefone book(look under Sprintnet) or by Directory Assistance.
If not, try Sprintnet Customer Service at 1-800-336-0437. This also will
probably only function between 8:30 and 5:00 EST, maybe a bit different.
Also, for a data number for in-dial look ups try 1-800-424-9494 at
communication parameters 7/E/1(or 8/N/1 also i believe). Type <CR> twice
or @D for 2400bps and press enter so Sprintnet can match your communications
parameters. It will display a short herald then a TERMINAL= prompt.
At the TERMINAL= prompt type VT100 for VT100 terminal emulation, if you are
using a personal computer i think D1 works, or just <CR> for dumb terminal.
Then type "c mail", at the username prompt type "phones", and for password
type "phones" again. It is menu driven from there on.
Now that you have your Sprintnet public dial port number, call it up like
you would a BBS, then when it connnects type the two <CR>s for 300/1200bps
or the @D for 2400bps, then it will display its herald, something like:
SPRINTNET(or in some cases TELENET)
123 11A (where 123 is your area code & Sprintnet's address prefix
and 11A is the port you are using)
TERMINAL=(type what you did previously eg:VT100,D1,<ENTER>)
then when Sprintnet displays the @ prompt you know you are connected to
a Sprintnet public PAD and you are ready to enter NUAs.
As i mentioned before, Sprintnet NUA prefixes correspond directly with
Area Codes, so to scan Sprintnet simply take an AC and suffix it with the
remaining digits, usually in sequence. Since Sprintnet ignores 0's, NUAs
can be as small as 4 digits. When scanning, go from lowest to highest,
stopping as soon as it seems NUAs have run dry(take it a hundred NUAs further
to be sure..best to take it right to 2000, maybe higher if you have time).
BT Tymnet is owned by British Telecom, and is the biggest PSN by far, but
it does have some extra security.
For finding Tymnet dial-ins the procedure is much the same, look in the
phone book under Tymnet or BT Tymnet, or phone directory assistance and ask
for BT Tymnet Public Dial Port numbers, or you can call Tymnet customer
Service at 1-800-336-0149. Generally try between 8:30 and 5:00 EST. I don't
have the Tymnet data number for finding in-dials, but once you are on Tymnet
type INFORMATION for a complete list of in-dials as well as other things.
Once you have your in-dial number set your communication parameters at
either 8/N/1 or 7/E/1 then dial the number just like you would a BBS. At
connect you will see a string of garbage characters or nothing at all.
Press <CR> so Tymnet can match your communication parameters. You will then
see the Tymnet herald which will look something like this:
please type your terminal identifier
If it wants a terminal identifier press A(if you want, you can press A
instead of <CR> at connect so it can match your communication parameters and
get your terminal identifer all at once).
After this initial part you will see the prompt:
please log in:
This shows Tymnet is ready for you to enter NUAs. A great deal of the NUAs on
Tymnet are in plain mnemonic format however. To reach these, just enter the
mnemonic you wish, nothing else(ie: CPU or SYSTEM). To enter digital NUAs you
need a NUI though. Tymnet will let you know when a NUI is wrong. Just keep
guessing NUIs and passwords until you find one. BUT, keep in mind, one of the
biggest security features Tymnet has is this: it will kick you off after three
incorrect attempts at anything. Thus, you'll have to call again and again, and
if you are in a digital switching system such as ESS it is not a good idea to
call anywhere an excessive amount of time. So keep it in moderation if you
choose to try Tymnet.
I am the most fond of Datapac, because I grew up on it. Nearly all the
hacking i've done to this day was on Datapac or the international PSNs i've
been able to reach through private PADs i've found on Datapac.
To connect to the Datapac network from Canada you will need to dial into
your local Datapac node, which is accessible in most cities via your local
Datapac dial-in number.
There are quite a few ways to find your local Datapac dial-in. It will
usually be in your telephone book under "DATAPAC PUBLIC DIAL PORT". If
not, you could try directory assistance for the same name. Alternatively,
there are a couple phone #'s for finding your dial port(these are also
1-800-267-6574 (Within Canada)
Also, these numbers function only from 8:30 to 5:00 EST(Eastern Standard
Time).Also, the Datapac Information Service(DIS) at NUA 92100086 has a
complete list of all public dial-ins.
I think you can use both communication parameter settings work, but 8/N/1
(8 data bits, No parity, 1 stop bit) is used most frequently, so set it
initially at that. Some NUA's on Datapac use 7/E/1, change to it if needed
after you are connected to a Datapac dial-in.
Ok,if you have your Datapac 3000 Public Indial number, you've set your
communication parameters at 8/N/1, then you are now set to go. Dial your
indial just like a BBS(duh..) and once connnected:
You will have a blank screen;
Type 3 periods and press RETURN (this is to tell Dpac to initialize itself)
The Datapac herald will flash up stating:
DATAPAC : XXXX XXXX (your in-dial's NUA)
You are now ready to enter commands to Datapac.
(YOU ENTER) atdt 16046627732
(YOU ENTER) ...
(DATAPAC RESPONDS) DATAPAC : 6710 1071
Now you are all set to enter the NUA for your destination.
NUAs on Datapac must be 8 to 10 digits(not including mnemonics).
8 is standard, but 9 or 10 is possible depending on usage of subaddressing.
NUA prefixes on Datapac are handed out in blocks, meaning they do not
correspond to Area Codes, but by looking at the surrounding prefixes, you can
tell where a prefix is located. When scanning on Datapac, keep in mind most of
the valid NUAs are found in the low numbers, so to sample a prefix go from
(example) 12300001 to 12300200. It is a good idea, however, to scan the prefix
right up until 2000, the choice is yours.
Here is a list of the previous PSN's DNICs, and most of the other DNICs
for PSNs world wide. This was taken from the DIS, with a number of my own
additions that were omitted(the DIS did not include other Canadian or
American PSNs). The extras DNICs came from my own experience and various
COUNTRY NETWORK DNIC DIRECTION
------- ------- ---- ---------
ANDORRA ANDORPAC 2945 BI-DIR
ANTIGUA AGANET 3443 INCOMING
ARGENTINA ARPAC 7220 BI-DIR
ARPAC 7222 BI-DIR
AUSTRIA DATEX-P 2322 BI-DIR
DATEX-P TTX 2323 BI-DIR
RA 2329 BI-DIR
AUSTRALIA AUSTPAC 5052 BI-DIR
OTC DATA ACCESS 5053 BI-DIR
AZORES TELEPAC 2680 BI-DIR
BAHAMAS BATELCO 3640 BI-DIR
BAHRAIN BAHNET 4263 BI-DIR
BARBADOS IDAS 3423 BI-DIR
BELGIUM DCS 2062 BI-DIR
DCS 2068 BI-DIR
DCS 2069 BI-DIR
BELIZE BTLDATAPAC 7020 BI-DIR
BERMUDA BERMUDANET 3503 BI-DIR
BRAZIL INTERDATA 7240 BI-DIR
RENPAC 7241 BI-DIR
RENPAC 7248 INCOMING
RENPAC 7249 INCOMING
BULGARIA BULPAC 2841 BI-DIR
BURKINA FASO BURKIPAC 6132 BI-DIR
CAMEROON CAMPAC 6242 BI-DIR
CANADA DATAPAC 3020 BI-DIR
GLOBEDAT 3025 BI-DIR
CNCP PACKET NET 3028 BI-DIR
CNCP INFO SWITCH 3029 BI-DIR
CAYMAN ISLANDS IDAS 3463 BI-DIR
CHAD CHADPAC 6222 BI-DIR
CHILE ENTEL 7302 BI-DIR
CHILE-PAC 7303 INCOMING
VTRNET 7305 BI-DIR
ENTEL 7300 INCOMING
CHINA PTELCOM 4600 BI-DIR
COLOMBIA COLDAPAQ 7322 BI-DIR
COSTA RICA RACSAPAC 7120 BI-DIR
RACSAPAC 7122 BI-DIR
RACSAPAC 7128 BI-DIR
RACSAPAC 7129 BI-DIR
CUBA CUBA 2329 BI-DIR
CURACAO DATANET-1 3621 BI-DIR
CYPRUS CYTAPAC 2802 BI-DIR
CYTAPAC 2807 BI-DIR
CYTAPAC 2808 BI-DIR
CYTAPAC 2809 BI-DIR
DENMARK DATAPAK 2382 BI-DIR
DATAPAK 2383 BI-DIR
DJIBOUTI STIPAC 6382 BI-DIR
DOMINICAN REP. UDTS-I 3701 INCOMING
EGYPT ARENTO 6020 BI-DIR
ESTONIA ESTPAC 2506 BI-DIR
FIJI FIJIPAC 5420 BI-DIR
FINLAND DATAPAK 2441 BI-DIR
DATAPAK 2442 BI-DIR
DIGIPAK 2443 BI-DIR
FRANCE TRANSPAC 2080 BI-DIR
NTI 2081 BI-DIR
TRANSPAC 2089 BI-DIR
TRANSPAC 9330 INCOMING
TRANSPAC 9331 INCOMING
TRANSPAC 9332 INCOMING
TRANSPAC 9333 INCOMING
TRANSPAC 9334 INCOMING
TRANSPAC 9335 INCOMING
TRANSPAC 9336 INCOMING
TRANSPAC 9337 INCOMING
TRANSPAC 9338 INCOMING
TRANSPAC 9339 INCOMING
FR ANTILLIES TRANSPAC 2080 BI-DIR
FR GUIANA TRANSPAC 2080 BI-DIR
FR POLYNESIA TOMPAC 5470 BI-DIR
GABON GABONPAC 6282 BI-DIR
GERMANY F.R. DATEX-P 2624 BI-DIR
DATEX-C 2627 BI-DIR
GREECE HELPAK 2022 BI-DIR
HELLASPAC 2023 BI-DIR
GREENLAND KANUPAX 2901 BI-DIR
GUAM LSDS-RCA 5350 BI-DIR
PACNET 5351 BI-DIR
GUATEMALA GUATEL 7040 INCOMING
GUATEL 7043 INCOMING
HONDURAS HONDUTEL 7080 INCOMING
HONDUTEL 7082 BI-DIR
HONDUTEL 7089 BI-DIR
HONG KONG INTELPAK 4542 BI-DIR
DATAPAK 4545 BI-DIR
INET HK 4546 BI-DIR
HUNGARY DATEX-P 2160 BI-DIR
DATEX-P 2161 BI-DIR
ICELAND ICEPAK 2740 BI-DIR
INDIA GPSS 4042 BI-DIR
RABMN 4041 BI-DIR
I-NET 4043 BI-DIR
INDONESIA SKDP 5101 BI-DIR
IRELAND EIRPAC 2721 BI-DIR
EIRPAC 2724 BI-DIR
ISRAEL ISRANET 4251 BI-DIR
ITALY DARDO 2222 BI-DIR
ITAPAC 2227 BI-DIR
IVORY COAST SYTRANPAC 6122 BI-DIR
JAMAICA JAMINTEL 3380 INCOMING
JAPAN GLOBALNET 4400 BI-DIR
DDX 4401 BI-DIR
NIS-NET 4406 BI-DIR
VENUS-P 4408 BI-DIR
VENUS-P 9955 INCOMIMG
VENUS-C 4409 BI-DIR
NI+CI 4410 BI-DIR
KENYA KENPAC 6390 BI-DIR
KOREA REP HINET-P 4500 BI-DIR
DACOM-NET 4501 BI-DIR
DNS 4503 BI-DIR
KUWAIT BAHNET 4263 BI-DIR
LEBANON SODETEL 4155 BI-DIR
LIECHTENSTEIN TELEPAC 2284 BI-DIR
TELEPAC 2289 BI-DIR
LUXEMBOURG LUXPAC 2704 BI-DIR
LUXPAC 2709 BI-DIR
MACAU MACAUPAC 4550 BI-DIR
MADAGASCAR INFOPAC 6460 BI-DIR
MADEIRA TELEPAC 2680 BI-DIR
MALAYSIA MAYPAC 5021 BI-DIR
MAURITIUS MAURIDATA 6170 BI-DIR
MEXICO TELEPAC 3340 BI-DIR
MOROCCO MOROCCO 6040 BI-DIR
MOZAMBIQUE COMPAC 6435 BI-DIR
NETHERLANDS DATANET-1 2040 BI-DIR
DATANET-1 2041 BI-DIR
DABAS 2044 BI-DIR
DATANET-1 2049 BI-DIR
N. MARIANAS PACNET 5351 BI-DIR
NEW CALEDONIA TOMPAC 5460 BI-DIR
NEW ZEALAND PACNET 5301 BI-DIR
NIGER NIGERPAC 6142 BI-DIR
NORWAY DATAPAC TTX 2421 BI-DIR
DATAPAK 2422 BI-DIR
DATAPAC 2423 BI-DIR
PAKISTAN PSDS 4100 BI-DIR
PANAMA INTELPAQ 7141 BI-DIR
INTELPAQ 7142 BI-DIR
PAPUA-NEW GUINEA PANGPAC 5053 BI-DIR
PARAGUAY ANTELPAC 7447 BI-DIR
PERU DICOTEL 7160 BI-DIR
PHILIPPINES CAPWIRE 5150 INCOMING
CAPWIRE 5151 BI-DIR
PGC 5152 BI-DIR
GLOBENET 5154 BI-DIR
ETPI 5156 BI-DIR
POLAND POLAK 2601 BI-DIR
PORTUGAL TELEPAC 2680 BI-DIR
SABD 2682 BI-DIR
PUERTO RICO UDTS 3300 BI-DIR
UDTS 3301 BI-DIR
QATAR DOHPAC 4271 BI-DIR
REUNION (FR) TRANSPAC 2080 BI-DIR
RWANDA RWANDA 6352 BI-DIR
SAN MARINO X-NET 2922 BI-DIR
SAUDI ARABIA ALWASEED 4201 BI-DIR
SENEGAL SENPAC 6081 BI-DIR
SEYCHELLES INFOLINK 6331 BI-DIR
SINGAPORE TELEPAC 5252 BI-DIR
TELEPAC 5258 BI-DIR
SOLOMON ISLANDS DATANET 5400 BI-DIR
SOUTH AFRICA SAPONET 6550 BI-DIR
SAPONET 6551 BI-DIR
SAPONET 6559 BI-DIR
SPAIN TIDA 2141 BI-DIR
IBERPAC 2145 BI-DIR
SRI-LANKA DATANET 4132 BI-DIR
SWEDEN DATAPAK TTX 2401 BI-DIR
DATAPAK-2 2403 BI-DIR
DATAPAK-2 2407 BI-DIR
SWITZERLAND TELEPAC 2284 BI-DIR
TELEPAC 2285 BI-DIR
TELEPAC 2289 BI-DIR
TAIWAN PACNET 4872 BI-DIR
PACNET 4873 BI-DIR
UDAS 4877 BI-DIR
TCHECOSLOVAKA DATEX-P 2301 BI-DIR
THAILAND THAIPAC 5200 BI-DIR
IDAR 5201 BI-DIR
TONGA DATAPAK 5390 BI-DIR
TOGOLESE REP. TOGOPAC 6152 BI-DIR
TORTOLA IDAS 3483 INCOMING
TRINIDAD DATANETT 3745 BI-DIR
TEXTET 3740 BI-DIR
TUNISIA RED25 6050 BI-DIR
TURKEY TURPAC 2862 BI-DIR
TURPAC 2863 BI-DIR
TURKS&CAICOS IDAS 3763 INCOMING
U ARAB EMIRATES EMDAN 4241 BI-DIR
EMDAN 4243 BI-DIR
TEDAS 4310 INCOMING
URUGUAY URUPAC 7482 BI-DIR
URUPAC 7489 BI-DIR
USSR IASNET 2502 BI-DIR
U.S.A. WESTERN UNION 3101 BI-DIR
MCI 3102 BI-DIR
ITT/UDTS 3103 BI-DIR
WUI 3104 BI-DIR
BT-TYMNET 3106 BI-DIR
SPRINTNET 3110 BI-DIR
RCA 3113 BI-DIR
WESTERN UNION 3114 BI-DIR
DATAPAK 3119 BI-DIR
PSTS 3124 BI-DIR
UNINET 3125 BI-DIR
ADP AUTONET 3126 BI-DIR
COMPUSERVE 3132 BI-DIR
AT&T ACCUNET 3134 BI-DIR
FEDEX 3138 BI-DIR
NET EXPRESS 3139 BI-DIR
SNET 3140 BI-DIR
BELL SOUTH 3142 BI-DIR
BELL SOUTH 3143 BI-DIR
NYNEX 3144 BI-DIR
PACIFIC BELL 3145 BI-DIR
SWEST BELL 3146 BI-DIR
U.S. WEST 3147 BI-DIR
CENTEL 3148 BI-DIR
FEDEX 3150 BI-DIR
U.S. VIRGIN I UDTS 3320 BI-DIR
U. KINGDOM IPSS-BTI 2341 BI-DIR
PSS-BT 2342 BI-DIR
GNS-BT 2343 BI-DIR
MERCURY 2350 BI-DIR
MERCURY 2351 BI-DIR
HULL 2352 BI-DIR
VANUATU VIAPAC 5410 BI-DIR
VENEZUELA VENEXPAQ 7342 BI-DIR
YUGOSLAVIA YUGOPAC 2201 BI-DIR
ZIMBABWE ZIMNET 6484 BI-DIR
Ok, now that you've hopefully found some systems, you are going to need to
know how to identify and, with any luck, get in these newfound delights.
What follows is a list of as many common systems as i could find. The
accounts listed along with it are not, per say, 'defaults'. There are very
few actual defaults. These are 'common accounts', in that it is likely that
many of these will be present. So, try them all, you might get lucky.
The list of common accounts will never be complete, but mine is fairly
close. I've hacked into an incredible amount of systems, and because of this
I've been able to gather a fairly extensive list of common accounts.
Where I left the password space blank, just try the username(and anything
else you want), as there are no common passwords other than the username
And also, in the password space I never included the username as a
password, as it is a given in every case that you will try it.
And remember, passwords given are just guidelines, try what you want.
UNIX- Unix is one of the most widespread Operating Systems in the
world; if you scan a PSN, chances are you'll find a number of
Unixes, doesn't matter where in the world the PSN resides.
The default login prompt for a unix system is 'login', and
while that cannot be changed, additional characters might
be added to preface 'login', such as 'rsflogin:'. Hit <CR> a
few times and it should disappear.
Because UNIX is a non-proprietary software, there are many
variants of it, such as Xenix, SCO, SunOS, BSD, etc.., but
the OS stays pretty much the same.
As a rule, usernames are in lowercase only, as are passwords,
but Unix is case sensitive so you might want to experiment if
you aren't getting any luck.
You are generally allowed 4 attempts at a login/password, but
this can be increased or decreased at the sysadmins whim.
Unfortunely, UNIX does not let you know when the username
you have entered is incorrect.
UNIX informs the user of when the last bad login attempt was
made, but nothing more. However, the sysadmin can keep logs
and audit trails if he so wishes, so watch out.
When inside a UNIX, type 'cat /etc/passwd'. This will give
you the list of usernames, and the encrypted passwords.
The command 'who' gives a list of users online.
'Learn' and 'man' bring up help facilities.
Once inside, you will standardly receive the prompt $ or %
for regular users, or # for superusers.
The root account is the superuser, and thus the password
could be anything, and is probably well protected. I left
this blank, it is up to you. There won't be any common
passwords for root.
adm admin, sysadm, sysadmin, operator, manager
123 lotus, lotus123
anonuucp anon, uucp, nuucp
asg device devadmin
backup save, tar
csr support, custsup
dbcat database, catalog
default user, guest
demo tour, guest
diag sysdiag, sysdiags, diags, test
diags diag, sysdiag, sysdiags
field fld, service, support, test
friend guest, visitor
guest visitor, demo, friend, tour
lib library, syslib
lp print spooler lpadmin
lpadmin lp, adm, admin
maint sysmaint, service
manager mgr, man, sysmgr, sysman, operator
netinst inst, install, net, network
netman net, man, manager, mgr, netmgr, network
netmgr net, man, manager, mgr, netmgr, network
operator sysop, oper, manager
oraclev5 oracle, database
rsmadm rsm, adm, admin
service field, support
sundiag sysdiag, diag, diags, sysdiags
suoper su, oper, operator
super supervisor, manager, operator
support field, service
sysadm adm, admin, operator, manager
sysdiag diag, diags, sysdiags
sysmaint maint, service
system sys, unix, shell, syslib, lib, operator
systest test, tester, testuser, user
test tester, testuser, systest, user
tester test, user, testuser
testuser test, tester, user, systest
tour demo, guest, user, visitor
unixmail mail, unix
user guest, demo
uucpadm adm, admin, uucp
uuadm uucp, adm
uuadmin uucp, admin
uuhost uucp, host
uulog uucp, log
uupick uucp, pick
uustat uucp, stat
uuto uucp, to
visitor guest, friend, demo, tour
vmsys vm, face
VMS- DEC's Virtual Memory System commonly runs on VAX computers.
It is another very widespread system, with many users world
VMS will have a 'Username:' prompt, and to be sure just type
in a ',' for a username. A VMS will throw back an error
message on special delimeters.
You will standardly get 3 and only three login attempts, and
VMS is not kind enough to let you know when you have entered
an incorrect username.
Once inside you will find yourself at a $ prompt.
guest visitor, demo
visitor guest, demo
opervax operator, vax
pfmuser pfm, user
mbwatch watch, mb
netcon net, network
netmgr net, manager, mgr, operator
field field, service, support, test, digital
netpriv network, private, priv, net
user test, guest, demo
mbmanager mb, manager, mgr, man
sysmaint sysmaint, maint, service, digital
systest_clig systest, test
operator oper, manager, mgr, admin,
test testuser, tester
rje remote, job, entry
dsmmanager dsm, manager
dsmuser dsm, user
HP3000- HP3000 mainframes run the MPE series of operating systems,
such as MPE, V, ix, X, and XL.
The default login prompt is ':', but this can be prefaced
with characters(ie: 'mentor:') and in some cases the ':' may
be taken completely away (ie: 'mentor'). To check for a
HP3000, hit a <CR>, you will get an error message such as this;
EXPECTED HELLO, :JOB, :DATA, OR (CMD) AS LOGON. (CIERR 1402)
To login type 'hello', followed by the login information,
which is in this format: USER.ACCOUNT,GROUP.
The group is optional, but may be needed in some cases, and
can give you different file sets and the sort.
A great thing about HP3000's is they tell you exactly what
is incorrect about the login name you've supplied them,
be it the account is valid but the username is wrong, or the
other way around.
But unfortunely, if the system operators choose, they may
password ALL of the login name segments; username, account
The internal prompt for MPE's is, again, :.
'Help' will give you help when inside a HP3000.
When entering accounts, i'd suggest not to use a group at
first. If you receive the error message 'not in home group',
then try the group PUB, then if even that fails, move on to
the common group list.
I didn't list passwords along with the accounts, as it would
be a bit of an awkward format, because of MPE's awkward
format. The only manufacturer's default I know of is HPONLY,
be sure to give that a try. Just remember to try the various
parts of the account as a password, and anything else along
If you need a password for the following user.accounts &
groups, try the various parts of the name plus any
combinations of it or names with obvious links to it(ie:
VM/CMS- The VM/CMS Operating System is found on IBM mainframes, and
while there are quite a few out there, they are commonly left
alone by hackers who prefer Unix or VMS.
VM/CMS systems are commonly found gated off Sim3278 VTAMs and
ISM systems as well.
The login prompt for CMS is '.', but additional information
might be given before the prompt, such as;
Virtual Machine/System Product
and frequently over to the side;
MSG userid message
but they all represent a VM/CMS system.
To logon, type 'logon' followed by the username, which is
usually 1 to 8 characters in length.
To be sure it is a CMS, type 'logon' followed by some random
garbage. If it is a VM/CMS, it will reply;
Userid not in CP directory
This is one of the great things about CMS, it tells you if
the login ID you entered is incorrect, thus making the
finding of valid ones fairly easy.
One thing to watch out for.. if you attempt brute forcing
some systems will simply shut the account or even the login
facility for some time. If that is the case, find out the
limit and stay just underneath it.. drop carrier or clear the
circuit if necessary, but if you continually shut down the
login facilities you will raise a few eyebrows before you
even make it inside.
Once inside, typing 'help' will get you a moderate online
operator op, operatns, manager, admin
operatns op, operator, manager, admin
cmsbatch cms, batch, batch1
vmtest test, testuser
cmsuser cms, user
admin operator, manager, adm, sysadmin, sysadm
inoutmgr mgr, manager
vmutil util, utils
infm-mgr infm, man, manager, mgr
netview network, view, net
cspuser user, csp
fsfadmin fsf, adm, sysadmin, sysadm, admin, fsfadm
sysadmin admin, adm, sysadm, manager, operator
vtamuser user, vtam
sqlusre user, sql
PRIMOS- Run on the Prime company's mainframes, the Primos Operating
System is in fairly wide use, and is commonly found on
Packet-Switched Networks worldwide.
Upon connect you will get a header somewhat like
PRIMENET 23.3.0 INTENG
This informs you that it is indeed a Primos computer, the
version number, and the system identifier the owner picked,
which is usually the company name or the city the Primos is
located in. If you find a Primos on a network, you will
receive the Primenet header, but if it is outside of a
network, the header may be different(ie:Primecon).
Hit a number of <CR>'s, and Primos will throw you the login
At this point, type 'login' followed by your
If hitting <CR>'s did not provoke an 'ER!', then type 'login'
followed by your username.
If you are blessed and you find some stone age company
running 18.0.0 or below, you are guaranteed access.
Just find a username and there will be no password prompt.
If for some reason passwording exists, a a few control-C's
should drop you in.
Unfortunely, Primos almost always allows one and one attempt
only at a username/password combination before it kicks you
off, and Primos will not tell you if the ID you've entered is
Once you are inside, you will find yourself at the prompt
'help' brings up a so-so online help guide.
netlink net, primenet
netman manager, man, mgr, netmgr
prime primos, system
primenet net, netlink
primos prime, system
primos_cs primos, prime, system
system prime, primos, sys1, operator
TOPS-10/20 An older and somewhat rare operating system, TOPS-10 ran on
the DEC-10/20 machines. You can usually recognize a TOPS-10 by
its' prompt, a lone period '.', while a TOPS-20 will have a
'@' in its place. Most systems allow you to enter the commands
'SYSTAT' or 'FINGER' from the login prompt, before logging in.
This command will let you see the users online, a valuable aide
To login, type 'login xxx,yyy', where the x and y's are
TOPS-10 does let you know when your username is incorrect.
User ID Code Password
1,2 OPERATOR, MANAGER, ADMIN, SYSLIB, LIB
2,7 MAINT, MAINTAIN, SYSMAINT
IRIS- Unfortunely, i have no experience with IRIS whatsoever. To
this day i haven't even seen one. So with regret i must
present old material, the following info comes entirely from
the LOD/H Technical Journal #3. Hopefully it will still be
The IRIS Operating System used to run soley on PDP systems,
but now runs on many various machines.
IRIS will commonly present itself with a herald such as;
"Welcome to IRIS R9.1.4 timesharing"
And then an "ACCOUNT ID?" prompt.
IRIS is kind enough to tell you when you enter an incorrect
ID, it won't kick you off after too many attempts, and no
logs are kept. And strangely enough, passwords are not used!
So if you can find yourself an IRIS OS, try the following
defaults and you should drop in..
NOS- The NOS(Network Operating System) is found on Cyber
mainframes made by CDC(the Control Data Corporation).
Cyber machines are commonly run by institutions such as
universities and atomic research facilities.
Cybers will usually give a herald of some sort, such as
Sheridan Park Cyber 180-830 Computer System
Sacremento Cyber 180-830 CSUS NOS Software System
The first login prompt will be 'FAMILY:', just hit <CR>.
The next prompt is 'USER NAME:'. This is more difficult,
usually 7 characters. The password is even worse,
commonly 7 random letters. Sound bad? It is. Brute forcing
an account is next to impossible.
I've never seen these defaults work, but they are better than
nothing. I got them out of the LOD/H Novice's Guide to
Hacking, written by the Mentor. There are no known passwords
for these usernames.
Decserver- The Decserver, is as the name implies, a server made by the
Digital Equipment Corporation, the same company that makes
the VAX machines.
It is possible the owner of the server put a password on it,
if this is the case you will hit a '#' prompt. If the server
has PADs or outdials on it, you can bet this is the case.
You don't need a username, just the password. You will
commonly get 3 tries, but it can be modified.
Good things to try are ; server, dec, network, net
(and whatever else goes along with that)
If you get past the #, or there isn't one, you will hit the
prompt 'Enter Username>'. What you put really doesn't matter,
it is just an identifier. Put something normal sounding, and
not your hacker alias. It is actually interesting to look at
the users online at a Decserver, as commonly there will be a few users
with the username 'C' or 'CCC' or the like, usually meaning
they are probably a fellow hacker.
Also, at the Enter Username> prompt you are able to ask for
help with the 'help' command, which spews out fairly lengthly
logon help file.
If all went well you should end up at a 'Local>' prompt.
Decservers have a fairly nice set of help files, simply type
'help' and read all you want.
It is a good idea to do a 'show users' when you first logon,
and next do a 'show services' and 'show nodes'. The services
are computers hooked up to the Decserver, which you can
access. For obvious reasons you will often find many VAX/VMS
systems on Decservers, but pretty much anything can be found
Look for services titled 'Dial', 'Modem', 'PAD', 'X25',
'Network', or anthing like that. Try pretty much everything
you see. Remember to try the usernames you see when you do
a 'show users' as users for the systems online.
Also, you will sometimes find your Decserver has Internet
(Telnet, SLIP or FTP) access, make sure you make full use of
To connect to the services you see, use 'c XXXX', where the
X's represent the service name.
GS/1> GS/1's are another server type system, but they are less
common than the Decservers. The default prompt is 'GS/1>',
but this can be changed to the sysadmins liking.
To check for a GS/1, do a 'sh d', which will print out some
To find what systems are available from the server, type
'sh n' or a 'sh c', and a 'sh m' for the system macros.
XMUX> The XMUX is a multiplexing system that provides remote
access, made by Gandalf Technologies, Inc., Gandalf of Canada
Ltd. in Canada. As far as I can tell, the XMUX is used only on
Packet-Switched Networks, Datapac in particular but with usage
on PSNs world wide.
The XMUX is not usually thought of as a stand alone system,
but as a supportive system for multi-user networked systems,
having a bit to do with system monitoring, channel control,
and some of the features of multiplexing.
Thus, you'll commonly find a XMUX on a mnemonic or a
subaddress of another system, although you will find them
alone on their own NUA frequently as well.
To find the systems on a subaddress or a mnemonic, your best
bet is to go with mnemonics, as the LOGGER mnemonic cannot be
removed, while subaddressing is optional.
You won't always want to check every single system, so i'll
give a guideline of where to check;
(REMINDER: this is only for systems on PSNs, and may not
apply to your PSN)
- PACX/ : The PACX/Starmaster is also made by
Starmaster Gandalf, and the two are tightly
Systems interwoven. If mnemonics don't work, be
sure to try LCNs, as the CONSOLE on a
PACX/Starmaster is an entirely different
thing, and frequently using the mnemonic
CONSOLE will bring you to the PACX
console, not the XMUX console.
- BBS Systems : BBS Systems on PSNs frequently need some
help, and XMUXs are fairly commonly
found with them.
- Other misc. : Many of the other operating systems,
systems such as Unix, AOS/VS, Pick and HP3000
have the occasional XMUX along with it.
- Networked : A good portion of networked systems have
If a system does have a XMUX also, you can reach it almost
always by the mnemonic CONSOLE, and if not, the node name of
the XMUX. If that doesn't work, try LCNs up to and including
Occasionally the console of the XMUX will be unpassworded, in
which case you will drop straight into the console. The XMUX
console is self-explanatory and menued, so i will leave you
to explore it.
However, in all likeliness you will find yourself at the
password prompt, 'Password >'. This can not be modified, but
a one-line herald may be put above it.
To check for a XMUX, simply hit <CR>. It will tell you that
the password was invalid, and it must be 1 to 8 alphanumeric
As you can see, you do not need a username for the remote
console of a XMUX. UIDs are used, but internally within the
As it says, the password format is 1 to 8 alphanumeric
characters. There is no default password, the console is left
unprotected unless the owner decides to password it.
However, there are common passwords. They are;
console, gandalf, xmux, system, password, sys, mux xmux1
I'll repeat them in the common passwords again later.
But these will not always work, as it is up to the owner to
pick the password(although they do like those).
Your next best bet is to find out the node name of the XMUX
(XMUXs are polling systems as well, usually hooked up somehow
to one of the regional hubs).
To do this, you must understand the parts of the XMUX.
The XMUX has 4 default parts; the CONSOLE, the FOX, the
LOGGER, and the MACHINE.
I'll try and define the usage of them a bit more;
CONSOLE- the main remote part of the XMUX, which performs all
the maintenance functions and system maintenance.
the actual system.
reachable usually on the LCN(subaddress) of 0 or
4/5, and the default mnemonic CONSOLE, which can be
FOX - a test system, which runs through never ending lines
of the alphabet and digits 0-9.
reachable on the LCN of 1, mnemonic FOX.
LOGGER - a device which displays log information, usually
one or two lines, including the node name.
reachable on the LCN of 2, mnemonic LOGGER.
MACHINE- a system which i do not yet understand fully.
performs some interesting functions.
the prompt is '#'.
type 'S' and you will(always) receive a short/long
(depending on how much the system is used) system
status report, containing among other things the
system node name.
if active, typing 'L' will bring up a more complete
system log. This is VERY useful. It contains the
NUAs of the systems which called the XMUX, and it
contains the UIDs if used.
As you can see, the XMUX is rather complicated upon
first look, but it is actually fairly simple. The easiest
way to grab the node name is to call the LOGGER.
The logger MUST be present, always. It is a non-removable
default. The LCN may be removed, but the mnemonic must stay.
I explained mnemonics earlier, but i'll refresh your memory.
To use the mnemonic, simply type the NUA, followed by a comma
and then the mnemonic, ie;
The very first thing in the data string you see is the node
name. If it is a blank space, you have run across a rarity,
a XMUX without a node name.
The node name is THE most popular thing other than the other
Try combinations of it, and combinations of it along with
the words XMUX and MUX.
And of course, if a herald is used, use whatever you can find
in the herald.
But again, if it is a company, they love to use the company
name or acronym as a password, and that acronym or name will
often be the node name.
Ok, have fun..
One other thing. I did not include the profile or remote
profile names, or the UIDs, as they are as far as i know
inapplicable from remote.
And a final comment. XMUXs are powerful and potentially
extremely harmful to a network. DO NOT DELETE ANYTHING. The
only submenus you will have reason to access are 'DEFINE' and
'DISPLAY'. Don't boot people off channels or add console
passwording or remove profiles..you will end up with your ass
in jail. Taking down a network is less than funny to the
people that run it. Explore, don't harm.
STARMASTER> The Starmaster/PACX 2000 is still a somewhat mysterious
/PACX system, but i have now explored all the security barriers as
well as the network and the internal functions, so i feel
this is fairly complete.
The Starmaster/PACX system is a networking/server system made
by, again, Gandalf Technologies Inc., Gandalf of Canada Ltd.,
in Canada, and is also known informally (and some what
incorrectly) as the 'Gandalf Access Server.' The Access is
similar, but different, as described later.
It is a fairly popular system on Datapac, and has some usage
in other regions of the world. Again, it is used mainly
on Packet-Switched Networks, although, thanks to the dialing
directory of a Sam24V outdial on a Starmaster, I have
discovered that Starmasters do indeed have dialin access.
The first possible security barrier is the dialin password,
which is rarely used, but you should know about.
The prompt is usually ;
But can be changed, although it should remain similar.
Dialin passwords are 1 to 8 characters, and are usually
one of the following defaults;
GANDALF SERVER PACX NET NETWORK STARMAST DIALIN PASSWORD
If the Starmaster has a XMUX resident(explained in previous
system definition; XMUXs), find out the node name and try it.
The next possible security barrier is that the sysadmin
desires the users to enter a username/password before
entering the server.
You will find yourself at a prompt such as;
This is the most common prompt.
Usernames are 1 to 8 characters, and the Starmaster will let
you know if it is wrong or not with an error message such as;
This, like the username prompt, can be changed, but it will
usually be in all-caps.
You are allowed between 1 and 10 attempts at either a valid
username or a valid password, depending on the owners
This means(if it is set to ten tries) you can enter 9 invalid
usernames, and on the tenth enter a valid username, then have
10 attempts at a valid password.
The defaults for this(which i will list later also) prompt
are; TEST, TESTUSER, TESTER, GANDALF, SYSTEM, GUEST
USER, HP, CONSOLE, and finally OPERATOR.
Also, first names will work usually.
The next prompt you will face, or the first one if usernames
are not implemented, is the server prompt. This is the main
user prompt for a Starmaster, all major user commands are
used from here.
But as you can guess, commands aren't used really, it is
service names you desire.
Sometimes you will get a list upon entering the server, but
other times you will just hit the server prompt, which
usually looks something like;
Or whatever the sysadmin feels like. 'SERVICE?' is the
default, and the most common.
Keep in mind that the services CAN be passworded, but
rarely are. In the case of passwording, use your imagination.
Another thing; from the PACX console, where the services are
defined, there is an option which decides whether the service
is allowed for remote users. If this is set to NO, then you
are out of luck, you have to be in the workstation to use the
command. This is common for the CONSOLE and the MAIL, and
occasionally modems and PADs. You will get an error message
something like 'SERVICE NOT ALLOWED'.
I will give a more complete list of common services, but
I will list the defaults and the major ones now.
PAD, X25, X28- Will commonly take you to a Gandalf PAD,
(or name of for which the default prompt is '*'.
your PSN) 'HELP' will bring up a list of commands.
MAIL - A non-removable default, but i've never
seen it with the remote access flag in the
CONNECT - Another non-removable default which i have
never seen with the remote access flag in
the on position.
MODEM, DIAL - And variations therof. The common outdial
is the Gandalf made Sam24V, which comes with
a great set of help files.
CONSOLE - The motherlode. The system controller,
maintenance computer, test machine, and
all of that. DON'T confuse the PACX console
with the XMUX console, they are two very
The console should be protected by the
sysadmin with his/her life, as every faction
of the Starmaster is controlled from within
The CONSOLE is a non-removable service from
the server, BUT remote access can be removed
thus cutting off our means of getting to it.
Try it first, if it works the screen will
scroll down a number of lines and give this
GANDALF TECHNOLOGIES INCORPORATED, COPYRIGHT 1990
This is not changable, it will remain the
same except for possibly the copyright date.
There can be 8 operators at the most, and
they will have 1 to 8 characters in their
name and password. And again, the PACX will
tell you if your operator name is incorrect.
You will be allowed 1 to 10 attempts at the
login name and then it resets to 0 for the
password attempt when you've found an
operator name, but same limit.
The same defaults for the usernames work
here, if you are lucky, with the exception
of HP. I'll list them again at the end.
Once you get in, it is all menued and
explanatory. DON'T FUCK THINGS UP. By that
I mean deleting or modifying. Look. There
is MUCH to see. The PACX console is
incredibly powerful, and you will have much
more fun exploring it.
Besides, once you are in the console, the
game is over. You have control over all the
services, users, and all security barriers.
If you get a high level console account,
you are the God of the PACX, no joke.
TEST TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
TESTUSER TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
TESTER TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
GANDALF GANDALF, SYSTEM, PACX, STARMAST, SYS
GUEST GUEST, VISITOR, USER
SYSTEM SYSTEM, SYS, OPERATOR, PACX, SYS, GANDALF
USER USER, GUEST, TEST, VISITOR, GANDALF
OPERATOR OPERATOR, SYSTEM, SYSLIB, LIB, GANDALF
CONSOLE CONSOLE, PACX, GANDALF, OPERATOR, SYSTEM
(i've never seen an account such as MAINT, but i would guess
one exists, along with standard system defaults. Try
anything outside these lines)
1 (if it works; higher)
A (through Z)
10 (if it works; higher in sequence of tens)
And anything else you can think of.
First names are also fairly common.
Operator Name Password
TEST TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
TESTUSER TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
TESTER TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
GANDALF GANDALF, SYSTEM, PACX, CONSOLE, SYS
GUEST GUEST, VISITOR, USER
SYSTEM SYSTEM, SYS, OPERATOR, PACX, SYS, GANDALF
USER USER, GUEST, TEST, VISITOR, GANDALF
OPERATOR OPERATOR, SYSTEM, CONSOLE, GANDALF
CONSOLE CONSOLE, PACX, GANDALF, OPERATOR, SYSTEM
SYS SYS, SYSTEM, GANDALF, PACX, CONSOLE
And again, try first names and ANYTHING you can think of.
Getting into the console should be your main objective.
ACCESS2590- The Access2590 is another Gandalf creation. While it is a
server system, it is different in some respects to a PACX.
The Starmaster generally only connects computers on a local
or wide area network(they do connect to X.25 & IP addresses,
but they *usually* don't), while the Access 2590 connects
to local & wide area network services, X.25 address, and IP
addresses with suprising versatility. The PACX is, however,
in much wider distribution.
It will usually have an initial herald screen, often letting
you know that it is indeed an Access server made by Gandalf.
Then you will find yourself at a prompt, the default being
"Access 2590 >". I haven't seen any sort of initial
protection before you hit that prompt, but i'm betting it
does exist, and it probably goes along the lines of the PACX.
Follow the trend I set with the PACX and you should do fine.
Anyways, the one thing I like so much more about the Access
2590 compared to the Starmaster is the command "show symbols"
. That was one of the big problems from a hacking point of
view with the PACX; it doesn't have a command available to
show you the services. If the operator wanted to give you
help with services he had to take the initiative himself and
design a herald screen or implement a help service, and few
do. But the "show symbols" on an Access will give you a
listing of all the available "symbols", which is Gandalf's
term for services. Connect to them with "c xxx" where "xxx"
is of course the service.
And yes, to you eager folks who have tasted the PACX
console's power, the Access does have a console. Type "c
console" to get to it.
Follow the PACX's guidelines, and you'll do fine.
PICK- The PICK system was created by Dick Pick(no joke), and is
a fairly widespread system, there are a few of them out there
on the major PSNs. I really dislike PICK, but for those of
you wishing to try it yourself, it is a fairly easy hack.
A normal PICK login prompt looks somewhat like;
07 JUN 1993 04:00:21 Logon please:
Additional data can be entered in that line, and a header
may be used above that. However, PICKs are usually
recognizable by that logon prompt which will normally
contain the date and time, as well as the 'Logon please:'.
If you aren't sure, enter the username 'SYSPROG', in ALL CAPS
, as PICK is case sensitive and SYSPROG will be in capitals.
SYSPROG is the superuser(or as PICK calls it the 'Ultimate
User') and is similar to root on a Unix; it must be present.
PICK lets you know when you've entered an invalid Username,
which is helpful when finding valid accounts.
Experiment with the upper and lower case if you wish, but
upper case is the norm.
One last note, internal passwording is possible on the PICK,
so don't be too suprised if you think you've found an
unpassworded system only to be hit by a password before the
ACCUPLOT-DEMO ACCUPLOT, DEMO
CPA.DOC CPA, DOC
CPA.PROD CPA, PROD
DM DATA, MANAGER, MAN, MGR, DATAMGR, DATAMAN
EXPRESS.BATCH EXPRESS, BATCH
FILE-SAVE FILESAVE, SAVE
FMS.PROD FMS, PROD
LEARN.DLR LEARN, DLR, LEARNDLR
PROCLIB PROC, LIBRARY, LIB
PROMIS-ARCHIVE PROMIS, ARCHIVE
PROMIS-BKGRND PROMIS, BKGRND
QA QUALITY, CONTROL
SCC.SYSPROG SCC, SYSPROG
SET.PLF SET, PLF, PLFSET
SYSLIB SYSTEM, LIBRARY, SYS, LIB
SYSPROG SYSTEM, PROGRAM, SYS, PROG, OPERATOR, DM
SYSPROG-PL SYSPROG, PL
TEMP-SYSPROG TEMP, SYSPROG
WP42.DOS WP, WP42
WP50.DOS WP, WP50
WP51 WP, WP51
WP51.DOS WP, WP51
AOS/VS- AOS/VS is made by Data General Corporation(DGC), and is in
my opinion the worst operating system i've seen yet.
But, in the quest of knowledge, and to broaden your computer
horizons, i suggest that you try to hack even this system,
for what it's worth.
The AOS/VS will usually readily identify itself with a
banner such as;
(yes, i'm overstepping my margin, i apologize)
**** AOS/VS Rev 7.62.00.00 / Press NEW-LINE to begin logging on ****
AOS/VS 7.62.00.00 / EXEC-32 7.62.00.00 11-Jun-93 0:27:31 @VCON1
The username prompt looks deceivingly like a VMS, but it is
not, and you can be sure by entering garbage for the username
and password. The AOS/VS will reply;
Invalid username - password pair
AOS/VS will not let you know when you've entered an incorrect
And a standard system will let you have 5 tries at a username/
password combination, but after that it gives this annoying
Too many attempts, console locking for 10 seconds
Having the system lock for 10 seconds does really nothing to
the hacker, except slow brute forcing down a small bit(10
Anyways, once inside 'HELP' will give you a set of help files
which i didn't enjoy too much, and 'WHO' will list the users
op operator, op
sysmgt sys, mgt, system, man, mgr, manager
RSTS- Probably the oldest OS that is still out there is RSTS. RSTS
was a very common OS a decade or so ago, but is now nearing
extinction. However, there are still a few out there on PSNs,
and thus you might want to attempt to hack in.
The RSTS will usually identify itself like;
RSTS V9.7-08 93.06.10 02:36
Before attempting to hack, try the SYSTAT command. It is
likely it will be disabled, but it is worth a try.
RSTS will tell you if the ID you've entered is incorrect with
the error message;
?Invalid entry - try again
The UIDs are in the format xxx,yyy , where x and y are digits.
Just guess at UIDs until you hit one with a password.
Also, the IDs will generally not go above 255 in both the x
and y spots(ie: 255,255 is generally the highest ID).
User ID Password
WNT- I really don't know much about Windows NT, mostly having to
do with the fact that it was just released a little while ago
and I have not seen it in action to this date. I don't know
at what time in the future it will become widespread, but for
you future hackers I did a little research and came up with
the two manufacturer defaults; administrator and guest. Both
come unpassworded.. administrator is the equivalent to root
on a Unix, and guest is just as you'd expect .. a low level
guest account. Interestingly enough, in the manuals I saw WNT
sysadmins were encouraged to keep the guest account...
unpassworded at that! Highly amusing.. let's see how long that
Oh yeah.. case sensitive, too.. I'm pretty sure it is
lowercase, but it is possible that the first letter is
capitalized. Remember that when attempting to brute force new
accounts. Oh, and keep in mind possible accounts such as
"test" and "field" and the such.
Occasionally you will find yourself in a position where you wish to
penetrate a system, but defaults are taken off and social engineering is not
The dedicated hacker then begins the tedious process of trying password
after password, hoping to crowbar his way into the system. Thus the term
'Brute Force' was born, aptly describing this process.
Brute force is the absolute ugliest way of obtaining an account, but is
is often effective. It is ugly for a number of reasons, having to do with the
fact that you will have to call the system hundreds of times if the account is
not easily brute forced.
However, first i will explain a modified form of brute force; intelligent
brute force. In this process, the hacker tries the users first name, as that
is the most common password of all, and a database of 20-100 common passwords.
The difference between this and the normal brute forcing is you cut your
time down considerably, but your chances of getting in go down as well.
Normal brute forcing is rarely done nowadays; the greats of yesterday
would spend 6 hours at a sitting trying passwords, but people nowadays seem to
think 5 minutes is sufficient. Ugh.
If standard brute forcing is done, it is accomplished with automation,
usually. Meaning the hacker will set up a program or a script file to spew out
dictionary passwords for him, then go to the movies or whatever. Obviously,
any way you do it, standard brute forcing is fairly dangerous. A sysadmin is
more likely to notice you trying a username/password 2000 times than 50. If
you choose to do automated brute forcing, it might be a good idea to set up
a hacked system to do it for you, such as a procured Unix. I would not,
however, suggest wasting the powers of a Cray on such a menial task as brute
force. You can only go as fast as the host system will let you. The danger
in this is obvious, you will have to be connected to the remote system for
a long time, leaving you wide open for a trace. It is up to you.
And, of course, brute forcing requires a username. If you don't have a
username, you are probably out of luck.
One thing you should definetly do is make a list of first names, and make
it fairly complete. Buy/steal a baby names book or look inside your phone
book and copy down the more commmon names on to a piece of paper or into a
file. Other than first names, husband/wife, boyfriend/girlfriend and
childs names are the most common passwords.
Ok, here are the basics to intelligent brute force hacking;
1. try the users first name
2. try your list of first names, male and female
2. try the users first name, with a lone digit(1 to 9) after the
3. try the users first name, with a lone digit(1 to 9) after the
4. try the users first name, with a letter appended to the end(A to Z)
5. try anything related to the system you are on. If you are on a
VAX running VMS on the Datapac PSN, try VAX, VMS, Datapac, X25, etc
6. try anything related to the company/service the system is owned by.
if the user is on a system owned by the Pepsi Cola company, try
Pepsi, Cola, Pepsico, etc.
7. finally, try passwords from your list of common passwords. your
list of common passwords should not be above 200 words.
The most popular passwords are;
password secret money sex smoke beer x25 system
hello cpu aaa abc fuck shit
Add on popular passwords to that as you see fit.
Remember; most passwords are picked spontaneously, on whatever
enters the users mind at that time(you know the feeling, i bet).
Attempt to get into the users mind and environment, to think what
he would think. If you can't do that, just try whatever comes to
your mind, you'll get the hang of it.
Brute Forcing User Names
A different form of brute force is that when you need a username to
hack passwords from. In order to guess a valid username, you must be on a
system that informs you when your username is invalid; thus VMS and Unix are
out of the question.
There are two types of usernames(by my definition); user and system.
The user usernames are the standard user's usernames. Examples would be
John, Smith, JMS, JSmith, and JohnS.
The system usernames are special usernames used by the system operators
to perform various functions, such as maintenance and testing. Since these
usernames are not owned by actual people(usually), they are given a name which
corresponds to their function.
Guessing either type is usually fairly easy.
User usernames are standardly in one of 2 formats; first name or last name
the more common format being first name. Less common formats are initials,
first initial/last name, and first name/last initial. Occasionally the
username formats will have nothing to do with names at all, and will instead
be 6 or 8 digit numbers. Have fun.
The users of a system will almost always have the same format as
each other. When you guess one, guessing more shouldn't be too hard.
For first names, again consult the list you made from the baby names book.
For last names, construct a list of the most common last names, ideally
out of the phone book, but if you are too lazy your mind will do fine. SMITH
and JONES are the most common non-foreign names.
For initials, use common sense. Guess at 3 letter combinations, and use
sensible formats. Meaning don't use XYZ as a rule, go for JMS, PSJ, etc, to
follow along with common first names and last names.
If you are getting no luck whatsoever, try switching your case(ie: from
all lower case to all upper case), the system might be case sensitive.
Usually guessing system names shouldn't be necessary; I gave a default
list for all the major systems. But if you run across a system not listed, you
will want to discover defaults of your own. Use common sense, follow along
with the name of the new OS and utilities that would fit with that name.
Attempt to find out the username restrictions for that system, if usernames
have to be 6 characters long, try only 6 character user names.
And finally, here is a list of common defaults(they are capitalized for
convienience, but as a rule use lower case);
OPERATOR SYSOP OP OPER MANAGER SYSMAN SYSMGR MGR MAN ADMIN
SYSADMIN ADM SYSADM BOSS MAIL SYSTEM SYS SYS1 MAINT SYSMAINT
TEST TESTER TESTUSER USER USR REMOTE PUB PUBLIC GUEST VISITOR
STUDENT DEMO TOUR NEWS HELP MGT SYSMGT SYSPROG PROD SALES
MARKET LIB LIBRARY FILES FILEMAN NET NETWORK NETMAN NETMGR
RJE DOS GAMES INFO SETUP STARTUP CONTROL CONFIG DIAG SYSDIAG
STAT SYSDIAGS DIAGS BATCH SUPRVISR SYSLIB MONITOR UTILITY
UTILS OFFICE CORP SUPPORT SERVICE FIELD CUST SECURITY WORD
DATABASE BACKUP FRIEND DEFAULT FINANCE ACCOUNT HOST ANON
SYSTEST FAX INIT INADS SETUP
Brute Forcing Services
There is also the time when you are on a server system, and you need
places to go. You will surely be told if the service you've entered is
incorrect, so just try things that come to mind, and the following list;
(the server may be case sensitive..use upper or lower case as you wish)
(NOTE: Try digits(1 +) and letters(A-Z) also)
SERVER NETWORK NET LINK LAN WAN MAN CONNECT LOG LOGIN HELP DIAL
OUT OUTDIAL DIALOUT MODEM MODEMOUT INTERNET TELNET PAD X25 X28 FTP
SYSTEM SYS SYS1 SYSTEM1 UNIX VAX VMS HP CONSOLE INFO CMDS LIST
SERVICES SERVICE SERVICE1 COMP COMPUTER CPU CHANNEL CHANNEL1 CH1
CH01 GO DO ? LOG ID USERS SHOW WHO PORT1 PORT NODE1 NODE LINK1
DISPLAY CONFIG CONTROL DIAGS SYSDIAGS DIAG SYSDIAG HELLO EMAIL
MAIL SET DEFINE PARAMS PRINT PHONE PHONES SESSION SESSION1 BEGIN
INIT CUST SERVICE SUPPORT BUSINESS ACCT ACCOUNT FINANCE SALES
BUFFER QUEUE STAT STATS SYSINFO SYSTAT FTP ACCESS DISK LIB SYSLIB
LIBRARY FILES BBS LOOP TEST SEARCH MACRO CALL COMMANDS TYPE FIND
ASK QUERY JOIN ATTACH JOB REMOTE COM1 COM CALLER LOGGER MACHINE
BULLITEN CLUSTER RUN HELLO PAYROLL DEC
While I am in no way going to go indepth on SE(social engineering) at this
point, i will explain the premise of SE to those new to it.
Social engineering can be defined any number of ways, but my definition
goes along the lines of; "Misrepresentation of oneself in a verbal manner to
another person in order to obtain knowledge that is otherwise unattainable."
Which in itself is a nice way of putting "manipulation, lying and general
Social engineering is almost always done over the phone.
I'll give an example. The hacker needs information, such as an account,
which he cannot get by simple hacking. He calls up the company that owns the
system he wishes to penetrate, and tells them he is Joe Blow of the Computer
Fixing Company, and he is supposed to fix their computers, or test them
remotely. But gosh, somebody screwed up and he doesn't have an account. Could
the nice lady give him one so he can do his job and make everybody happy?
See the idea? Misrepresentation of the truth; pretending to be someone you
If you are skeptical, you shouldn't be. SE is tried and true, due to the
fact that any company's biggest security leak is their employees. A company
can design a system with 20 passwords, but if an uncaring employee unwittingly
supplies a hacker with all of these passwords, the game is over.
You *must* have the voice for it. If you sound like a 12 year old, you
aren't going to get shit. If you can't help it, there are telephone-voice
changers(which any SE practicer should have anyways) that will do it for you.
If the person wishes to contact higher authority(who will probably suspect
somethings up), get mad. Don't go into a rage, but do get angry. Explain that
you have a job to do, and be persuasive.
I won't go more into SE, there are tons of text files out there on it
already. Just remember to keep calm, have a back up plan, and it is a good
idea to have the script on paper, and practice it a bit before hand. If you
sound natural and authorative, you will get whatever you want.
And practice makes perfect.
Trashing is another thing i will not go too indepth on, but i will provide
a very quick overview.
Trashing is the name given to the process of stealing a companies trash,
then rooting through it and saving the valuable information.
Trashing is practiced most often on the various RBOCs, but if you are
attempting to hack a system local to you, it might be a good idea to go
trashing for a few weeks, you might find a printout or a scrap of paper with
a dialup or username and password written on it.
This is a fairly good sized list of H/P acronyms I've compiled from
ABSBH: Average Busy Season Busy Hour
AC: Area code
ACC: Automatic Communications Control
ACC: Asynchronous Communications Center
ACD: Automatic Call Distributor
ACE: Automatic Calling Equipment
ACF: Advanced Communications Functions
ACN: Area Code + Number
ADPCM: Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
AIS: Automatic Intercept System
ALFE: Analog Line Front End
ALRU: Automatic Line Record Update
AM: Account Manager
AM: Access Module
AM: Amplitude Modulation
AMA: Automatic Message Accounting
AMSAT: American Satellite
AN: Associated Number
ANI: Automatic Number Identification
ANXUR: Analyzer for Networks with Extended Routing
AOSS: Auxiliary Operator Services System
AP: Attached Processor
ARC: Automatic Response Control
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol
ARPA: Advanced Reasearch Projects Agency
ARS: Automatic Response System
ARSB: Automated Repair Service Bureau
AT: Access Tandem
ATB: All Trunks Busy
ATH: Abbreviated Trouble History
ATM: Automated Teller Machine
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AT&T: American Telegraph and Telephone Company
AVD: Alternate Voice Data
BCD: Binary Coded Decimal
BCUG: Bilateral CUG
BELLCORE: Bell Communications Research
BGP: Border Gateway Protocol
BHC: Busy Hour Calls
BLV: Busy Line Verification
BOC: Bell Operating Company
BOR: Basic Output Report
BOS: Business Office Supervisor
BSC: Binary Synchronous Module
BSCM: Bisynchronous Communications Module
BSOC: Bell Systems Operating Company
CADV: Combined Alternate Data/Voice
CAMA: Centralized Automatic Message Accounting
CATLAS Centralized Automatic Trouble Locating & Analysis System
CAU: Controlled Access Unit
CAVD: Combined Alternated Voice/Data
CBC Cipher Block Chaining
CBS: Cross Bar Switching
CBX: Computerized Branch Exchange
CBX: Computerized Business Exchange
CC: Calling Card
CC: Common Control
CC: Central Control
CC: Country Code
CCC: Central Control Complex
CCC: Clear Channel Capability
CCC: Central Control Computer
CCIS: Common Channel Interoffice Signalling
CCITT: International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee
CCM: Customer Control Management
CCNC: Common Channel Network Controller
CCNC: Computer Communications Network Center
CCS: Common Channel Signalling
CCSA: Common Control Switching Arrangement
CCSA: Common Central Switching Arrangement
CCSS: Common Channel Signalling System
CCT: Central Control Terminal
CCTAC: Computer Communications Trouble Analysis Center
CDA: Call Data Accumulator
CDA: Crash Dump Analyzer
CDA: Coin Detection and Announcement
CDAR: Customer Dialed Account Recording
CDC: Control Data Corporation
CDI: Circle Digit Identification
CDO: Community Dial Office
CDPR: Customer Dial Pulse Receiver
CDR: Call Dial Recording
CDS: Cicuit Design System
CEF: Cable Entrance Facility
CERT: Computer Emergency Response Team
CF: Coin First
CGN: Concentrator Group Number
CI: Cluster Interconnect
CIC: Carrier Identification Codes
CICS: Customer Information Control System
CID: Caller ID
CII: Call Identity Index
CIS: Customer Intercept Service
CISC: Complex Instruction Set Computing
CLASS: Custom Local Area Signalling Service
CLASS: Centralized Local Area Selective Signalling
CLDN: Calling Line Directory Number
CLEI: Common Language Equipment Identification
CLI: Calling Line Identification
CLID: Calling Line Identification
CLLI: Common Language Location Indentifier
CLNP: Connectionless Network Protocol
CMAC: Centralized Maintenance and Administration Center
CMC: Construction Maintenance Center
CMDF: Combined Main Distributing Frame
CMDS: Centralized Message Data System
CMIP: Common Management Information Protocol
CMS: Call Management System
CMS: Conversational Monitoring System
CMS: Circuit Maintenance System
CMS: Communications Management Subsystem
CN/A: Customer Name/Address
CNA: Communications Network Application
CNAB: Customer Name Address Bureau
CNCC: Customer Network Control Center
CNI: Common Network Interface
CNS: Complimentary Network Service
CO: Central Office
COC: Central Office Code
COCOT: Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone
CODCF: Central Office Data Connecting Facility
COE: Central Office Equipment
COEES: Central Office Equipmet Engineering System
COER: Centarl Office Equipment Reports
COLT: Central Office Line Tester
COMSAT: Communications Satellite
COMSEC: Communications Security
COMSTAR: Common System for Technical Analysis & Reporting
CONS: Connection-Oriented Network Service
CONTAC: Central Office Network Access
COS: Class of Service
COSMIC: Common Systems Main Inter-Connection
COR: Class Of Restriction
COSMOS: Computerized System For Mainframe Operations
COT Central Office Terminal
CP: Control Program
CPBXI: Computer Private Branch Exchange Interface
CPC: Circuit Provisioning Center
CPD: Central Pulse Distributor
CPMP: Carrier Performance Measurement Plan
CRAS: Cable Repair Administrative System
CRC: Customer Record Center
CRC: Customer Return Center
CREG: Concentrated Range Extension & Gain
CRG: Central Resource Group
CRIS: Customer Record Information System
CRS: Centralized Results System
CRSAB: Centralized Repair Service Answering Bureau
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube
CRTC: Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission
CSA: Carrier Servicing Area
CSAR: Centralized System for Analysis and Reporting
CSC: Cell Site Controller
CSC: Customer Support Center
CSDC: Circuit Switch Digital Capability
CSP: Coin Sent Paid
CSMA/CD: Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collission Detection
CSR: Customer Service Records
CSS: Computer Special Systems
CSS: Computer Sub-System
CSU: Channel Service Unit
CT: Current Transformer
CTC: Channel Termination Charge
CTC: Central Test Center
CTM: Contac Trunk Module
CTMS: Carrier Transmission Measuring System
CTO: Call Transfer Outside
CTSS: Compatible Time Sharing System
CTSS: Cray Time Sharing System
CTTN: Cable Trunk Ticket Number
CTTY: Console TeleType
CU: Control Unit
CU: Customer Unit
CUG: Closed User Group
CWC: City-Wide Centrex
DA: Directory Assistance
DACC: Directort Assistance Call Completion
DAA: Digital Access Arrangements
DACS: Digital Access and Cross-connect System
DACS: Directory Assistance Charging System
DAIS: Distributed Automatic Intercept System
DAL: Dedicated Access Line
DAO: Directory Assistance Operator
DAP: Data Access Protocol
DARC: Division Alarm Recording Center
DARPA: Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DARU: Distributed Automatic Response Unit
DAS: Device Access Software
DAS: Directory Assistance System
DAS: Distributor And Scanner
DAS: Dual Attachment Station
DASD: Direct Access Storage Device
DBA: Data Base Administrator
DBA: Digital Business Architecture
DBAC: Data Base Administration Center
DBAS: Data Base Administration System
DBC: Digital Business Center
DBM: Database Manager
DBMS: Data Base Management System
DBS: Duplex Bus Selector
DCA: Defense Communications Agency
DCC: Data Country Code
DCC: Data Collection Computer
DCE: Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment
DCE: Data Communicating Equipment
DCL: Digital Computer Language
DCLU: Digital Carrier Line Unit
DCM: Digital Carrier Module
DCMS: Distributed Call Measurement System
DCMU: Digital Concentrator Measurement Unit
DCO-CS: Digital Central Office-Carrier Switch
DCP: Duplex Central Processor
DCS: Digital Cross-Connect System
DCSS: Discontiguous Shared Segments
DCSS: Digital Customized Support Services
DCT: Digital Carrier Trunk
DDCMP: Digital Data Communications Message Protocol
DDD: Direct Distance Dialing
DDN: Defense Data Network
DDR: Datapac Design Request
DDS: Digital Data Service
DDS: Digital Data System
DDS: Dataphone Digital Service
DEC: Digital Equipment Corporation
DES: Data Encryption Standard
DF: Distributing Frame
DGC: Data General Corporation
DH: Distant Host
DID: Direct Inward Dialing
DIMA: Data Information Management Architecture
DINS: Digital Information Network Service
DIS: Datapac Information Service
DISA: Direct Inward System Access
DLC: Digital Loop Carrier
DLS: Dial Line Service
DMA: Direct Memory Access
DN: Directory Numbers
DNA: Datapac Network Address
DNA: Digital Named Accounts
DNA: Digital Network Architecture
DNIC: Data Network Identifier Code
DNR: Dialed Number Recorder
DNS: Domain Name Service
DNS: Domain Name System
DOCS: Display Operator Console System
DOD: Department Of Defense
DOM: District Operations Manager
DPSA: Datapac Serving Areas
DPTX: Distributed Processing Terminal Executive
DSC: Data Stream Compatibility
DSI: Data Subscriber Interface
DSL: Digital Subscriber Line
DSN: Digital Services Network
DSU: Data Service Unit
DSU: Digital Service Unit
DSX: Digital Signal Cross-Connect
DTC: Digital Trunk Controller
DTE: Data Terminal Equipment
DTF: Dial Tone First
DTG: Direct Trunk Group
DTI: Digital Trunk Interface
DTIF: Digital Tabular Interchange Format
DTMF: Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
DTN: Digital Telephone Network
DTST: Dial Tone Speed Test
DVM: Data Voice Multiplexor
EAEO: Equal Access End Office
EA-MF: Equal Access-Multi Frequency
EBDI: Electronic Business Data Interchange
EC: Exchange Carrier
ECC: Enter Cable Change
EDC: Engineering Data Center
EDI: Electronic Data Interchange
EE: End to End Signaling
EEDP: Expanded Electronic Tandem Switching Dialing Plan
EGP: Exterior Gateway Protocol
EIES: Electronic Information Exchange System
EIU: Extended Interface Unit
EKTS: Electonic Key Telephone Service
ELDS: Exchange Line Data Service
EMA: Enterprise Management Architecture
EO: End Office
EOTT: End Office Toll Trunking
EREP: Environmental Recording Editing and Printing
ESA: Emergency Stand Alone
ESB: Emergency Service Bureau
ESN: Electronic Serial Number
ESP: Enhanced Service Providers
ESS: Electronic Switching System
ESVN: Executive Secure Voice Network
ETS: Electronic Tandem Switching
EWS: Early Warning System
FAC: Feature Access Code
FAM: File Access Manager
FCC: Federal Communications Commission
FCO: Field Change Order
FDDI: Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDM: Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDP: Field Development Program
FEP: Front-End Processor
FEV: Far End Voice
FIFO: First In First Out
FIPS: Federal Information Procedure Standard
FM: Frequency Modulation
FMAP: Field Manufacturing Automated Process
FMIC: Field Manufacturing Information Center
FOA: First Office Application
FOIMS: Field Office Information Management System
FPB: Fast Packet Bus
FRL: Facilities Restriction Level
FRS: Flexible Route Selection
FRU: Field Replaceable Unit
FS: Field Service
FSK: Frequency Shift Keying
FT: Field Test
FTG: Final Trunk Group
FTP: File Transfer Protocol
FTPD: File Transfer Protocol Daemon
FX: Foreign Exchange
GAB: Group Access Bridging
GCS: Group Control System
GECOS: General Electric Comprehensive Operating System
GGP: Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol
GOD: Global Out Dial
GPS: Global Positioning System
GRINDER: Graphical Interactive Network Designer
GSA: General Services Administration
GSB: General Systems Business
GTE: General Telephone
HCDS: High Capacity Digital Service
HDLC: High Level Data Link Control
HLI: High-speed LAN Interconnect
HDSC: High-density Signal Carrier
HPO: High Performance Option
HUTG: High Usage Trunk Group
IBM: International Business Machines
IBN: Integrated Business Network
IC: Intercity Carrier
IC: InterLATA Carrier
IC: Interexchange Carrier
ICAN: Individual Circuit Analysis Plan
ICH: International Call Handling
ICM: Integrated Call Management
ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol
ICN: Interconnecting Network
ICPOT: Interexchange Carrier-Point of Termination
ICUG: International Closed User Group
ICVT: Incoming Verification Trunk
IDA: Integrated Digital Access
IDCI: Interim Defined Central Office Interface
IDDD: International Direct Distance Dialing
IDLC: Integrated Digital Loop Carrier
IDN: Integrated Digital Networks
IEC: Interexchange Carrier
IMP: Internet Message Processor
IMS: Information Management Systems
IMS: Integrated Management Systems
IMTS: Improved Mobile Telephone Service
INAP: Intelligent Network Access Point
INS: Information Network System
INTT: Incoming No Test Trunks
INWATS: Inward Wide Area Telecommunications Service
IOC: Interoffice Channel
IOC: Input/Output Controller
IOCC: International Overseas Completion Center
IP: Intermediate Point
IP: Internet Protocol
IPCF: Inter-Program Communication Facility
IPCH: Initial Paging Channel
IPCS: Interactive Problem Control System
IPL: Initial Program Load
IPLI: Internet Private Line Interface
IPLS: InterLATA Private Line Services
IPSS: International Packet-Switched Service
IRC: Internet Relay Chat
IRC: International Record Carrier
ISC: Inter-Nation Switching Center
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network
ISIS: Investigative Support Information System
ISO: International Standards Organization
ISSN: Integrated Special Services Network
ISU: Integrated Service Unit
ISWS: Internal Software Services
ITDM: Intelligent Time Division Multiplexer
ITI: Interactive Terminal Interface
ITS: Interactive Terminal Support
ITS: Incompatible Time-Sharing System
ITT: International Telephone and Telegraph
IVP: Installation Verification Program
IX: Interactive Executive
IXC: Interexchange Carrier
JCL: Job Control Language
JES: Job Entry System
KP: Key Pulse
LAC: Loop Assignment Office
LADS: Local Area Data Service
LADT: Local Area Data Transport
LAM: Lobe Access Module
LAN: Local Area Network
LAP: Link Access Protocol
LAPB: Link Access Protocol Balanced
LAPS: Link Access Procedure
LASS: Local Area Signalling Service
LASS: Local Area Switching Service
LAST: Local Area System Transport
LAT: Local Area Transport
LATA: Local Access Transport Area
LAVC: Local Area VAX Cluster
LBS: Load Balance System
LCDN: Last Call Directory Number
LCM: Line Concentrating Module
LCN: Logical Channel
LD: Long Distance
LDEV: Logical Device
LDM: Limited Distance Modem
LDS: Local Digital Switch
LEBC: Low End Business Center
LEC: Local Exchange Carrier
LEN: Low End Networks
LENCL: Line Equipment Number Class
LGC: Line Group Controller
LH: Local Host
LIFO: Last In First Out
LIP: Large Internet Protocol
LLC: Logical Link Control
LM: Line Module
LMOS: Loop Maintenance and Operations System
LSI: Large Scale Integration
LTC: Line Trunk Controller
LU: Local Use
LVM: Line Verification Module
MAC: Media Access Control
MAC: Message Authentication
MAN: Metropolitan Area Network
MAP: Maintenance and Administration Position
MAP: Manufacturing Automation Protocol
MAT: Multi-Access Trunk
MAU: Multistation Access Unit
MBU: Manufacturing Business Unit
MCA: Micro Channel Architecture
MCI: Microwave Communications, Inc.
MCP: Master Control Program
MCT: Manufacturing Cycle Time
MCU: Multi Chip Unit
MDR: Message Detail Record
MDS: Message Design Systems
MDU: Marker Decoder Unit
MFD: Main Distributing Frame
MFR: Mult-Frequency Receivers
MFT: Metallic Facility Terminal
MIB: Management Information Base
MIC: Management Information Center
MIF: Master Item File
MIS: Management Information Systems
MJU: MultiPoint Junction Unit
MLHG: Multiline Hunt Group
MLT: Mechanized Loop Testing
MNS: Message Network Basis
MOP: Maintenance Operation Protocol
MPL: Multischedule Private Line
MPPD: Multi-Purpose Peripheral Device
MRAA: Meter Reading Access Arrangement
MSCP: Mass Storage Control Protocol
MSI: Medium Scale Integration
MTBF: Mean Time Between Failure
MTS: Message Telecommunication Service
MTS: Message Telephone Service
MTS: Message Transport Service
MTS: Mobile Telephone Service
MTSO: Mobile Telecommunications Switching Office
MTU: Maintenence Termination Unit
MVS: Multiple Virutal Storage
MWI: Message Waiting Indicator
NAM: Number Assignment Module
NAS: Network Application Support
NC: Network Channel
NCCF: Network Communications Control Facility
NCI: Network Channel Interface
NCIC: National Crime Information Computer
NCP: Network Control Program
NCS: Network Computing System
NCTE: Network Channel Terminating Equipment
NDA: Network Delivery Access
NDC: Network Data Collection
NDIS: Network Device Interface Specification
NDNC: National Data Network Centre
NDS: Network Data System
NDU: Network Device Utility
NEBS: Network Equipment Building System
NECA: National Exchange Carriers Association
NFS: Network File Sharing
NFS: Network File System
NFT: Network File Transfer
NI: Network Interconnect
NI: Network Interface
NIC: Network Information Center
NIC: Network Interface Card
NJE: Network Job Entry
NLM: Netware Loadable Modules
NLM: Network Loadable Modules
NM: Network Module
NMR: Normal Mode Rejection
NOS: Network Operating System
NPA: Numbering Plan Area
NPA: Network Performance Analyzer
NSF: National Science Foundation
NSP: Network Services Protocol
NTE: Network Terminal Equipment
NUA: Network User Address
NUI: Network User Identifier
OC: Operator Centralization
OCC: Other Common Carrier
OD: Out Dial
ODA: Office Document Architecture
ODDB: Office Dependent Data Base
ODI: Open Data Interface
OGT: Out-Going Trunk
OGVT: Out-Going Verification Trunk
OIS: Office Information Systems
OLTP: On-Line Transaction Processing
ONI: Operator Number Identification
OPCR: Operator Actions Program
OPM: Outside Plant Module
OPM: Outage Performance Monitoring
OR: Originating Register
OS: Operating System
OSI: Open Systems Interconnection
OSL: Open System Location
OSS: Operator Services System
OST: Originating Station Treatment
OTC: Operating Telephone Company
OTR: Operational Trouble Report
OUTWATS: Outward Wide Area Telecommunications Service
PABX: Private Automated Branch Exchange
PACT: Prefix Access Code Translator
PAD: Packet Assembler/Disassembler
PADSX: Partially Automated Digital Signal Cross-Connect
PAM: Pulse Amplitude Modulation
PAX: Private Automatic Exchange
PBU: Product Business Unit
PBX: Private Branch Exchange
PC: Primary Center
PCM: Pulse Code Modulation
PCP: PC Pursuit
PFM: Pulse Frequency Modulation
PGA: Pin Grid Array
PIN: Personal Identification Number
PLA: Programmable Logic Array
PLD: Programmable Logic Device
PLS: Programmable Logic Sequencer
PM: Phase Modulation
PM: Peripheral Module
PMAC: Peripheral Module Access Controller
PMR: Poor Mans Routing
PNC: Primenet Node Controller
POC: Point of Contact
POF: Programmable Operator Facility
POP: Point of Presence
POS: Point Of Sale
POT: Point of Termination
POTS: Plain Old Telephone Service
PPN: Project Program Number
PPP: Point to Point Protocol
PPS: Public Packet Switching
PPSN: Public Packet Switched Network
PSAP: Public Safety Answering Point
PSDC: Public Switched Digital Capability
PSDCN: Packet-Switched Data Communication Network
PSDN: Packet-Switched Data Network
PSDS: Public Switched Digital Service
PSN: Packet-Switched Network
PSS: Packet-Switched Service
PSW: Program Status Word
PTE: Packet Transport Equipment
PTS: Position and Trunk Scanner
PTT: Postal Telephone & Telegraph
PVC: Permanent Virtual Call
PVN: Private Virtual Network
PWC: Primary Wiring Center
QPSK: Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
RACF: Resource Access Control Facility
RAO: Revenue Accounting Office
RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
RBG: Realtime Business Group
RBOC: Regional Bell Operating Company
RC: Rate Center
RC: Regional Center
RDB: Relational Database
RDSN: Region Digital Switched Network
RDT: Restricted Data Transmissions
RDT: Remote Digital Terminal
REP: Reperatory Dialing
REXX: Restructured Extended Executer Language
RFC: Request For Comments
RIP: Routing Information Protocol
RIS: Remote Installation Service
RISC: Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RISD: Reference Information Systems Development
RJE: Remote Job Entry
RLCM: Remote Line Concentrating Module
RNOC: Regional Network Operations Center
ROTL: Remote Office Test Line
RPC: Remote Procedure Call
RPE: Remote Peripheral Equipment
RSA: Reference System Architecture
RSB: Repair Service Bureau
RSC: Remote Switching Center
RSCS: Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem
RSS: Remote Switching System
RSU: Remote Switching Unit
RTA: Remote Trunk Arrangement
RTG: Routing Generator
RX: Remote Exchange
SA: Storage Array
SABB: Storage Array Building Block
SAM: Secure Access Multiport
SARTS: Switched Access Remote Test System
SAS: Switched Access Services
SAS: Single Attachment System
SBB: System Building Block
SABM: Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode
SAC: Special Area Code
SBS: Satellite Business Systems
SC: Sectional Center
SCC: Specialized Common Carrier
SCC: Switching Control Center
SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part
SCCS: Switching Control Center System
SCF: Selective Call Forwarding
SCF: Supervision Control Frequency
SCM: Station Class Mark
SCM: Subscriber Carrier Module
SCP: Signal Conversion Point
SCP: System Control Program
SCP: Service Control Point
SCR: Selective Call Rejection
SDLC: Synchronous Data Link Control
SFE: Secure Front End
SIDH: System Identification Home
SIT: Special Information Tones
SLIC: Subscriber Line Interface Card
SLIM: Subscriber Line Interface Module
SLIP: Serial Line Internet Protocol
SLS: Storage Library System
SLU: Serial Line Unit
SM: System Manager
SMDI: Storage Module Disk Interconnect
SMDR: Station Manager Detail Recording
SMI: System Management Interrupt
SMP: Symmetrical Multi-Processing
SMS: Self-Maintenance Services
SMS: Station Management System
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNA: Systems Network Architecture
SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol
SONDS: Small Office Network Data System
SOST: Special Operator Service Treatment
SP: Service Processor
SPC: Stored Program Control
SPCS: Stored Program Control System
SPCSS: Stored Program Control Switching System
SPM: Software Performance Montior
SQL/DS: Structured Query Language/Data System
SRC: System Resource Center
SS: Signaling System
SSAS: Station Signaling and Announcement System
SSCP: Systems Service Control Point
SSCP: Subsystem Services Control Point
SSP: Switching Service Points
SSS: Strowger Switching System
STC: Service Termination Charge
STD: Subscriber Trunk Dialing
STP: Signal Transfer Point
STS: Synchronous Transport Signal
SVC: Switched Virtual Call
SWG: Sub Working Group
SxS: Step-by-Step Switching
T-1: Terrestrial Digital Service
TAC: Trunk Access Code
TAC: Terminal Access Circuit
TAC: Terminal Access Center
TAS: Telephone Answering Service
TASI: Time Assignment Speech Interpolation
TBU: Terminals Business Unit
TC: Toll Center
TCAP: Transaction Capabilities ApplicationPart
TCC: Technical Consulting Center
TCC: Telecommunications Control Computer
TCF: Transparent Connect Facility
TCM: Time Compression Multiplexing
TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
TDAS: Traffic Data Administration System
TDCC: Transport Data Coordinating Committee
TDM: Time Division Multiplexer
TDMS: Terminal Data Management System
TDS: Terrestrial Digital Service
TH: Trouble History
TIDE: Traffic Information Distributor & Editor
TIS: Technical Information Systems
TLB: TransLAN Bridge
TM: Trunk Module
TMSCP: Tape Mass Storage Control Protocol
TNDS: Total Network Data System
TNPS: Traffic Network Planning Center
TO: Toll Office
TOP: Technical Office Protocol
TOPS: Traffic Operator Position System
TP: Transport Protocol
TP: Toll Point
TP: Transaction Processing
TPC: Transaction Processiong Performance Council
TREAT: Trouble Report Evaluation and Analysis Tool
TRIB: Throughput Rate in Information Bits
TRT: Tropical Radio and Telephone
TSB: Time Shared Basic Environment
TSG: Timing Signal Generator
TSN: Terminal Switching Network
TSO: Time Sharing Option
TSPS: Traffice Service Position System
TTL: Transistor-to-Transistor Logic
TTS: Trunk Time Switch
TWX: Type Writer Exchange
UA: Unnumbered Acknowledgement
UAE: Unrecoverable Application Error
UART: Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
UCS: Uniform Communication Standard
UDC: Universal Digital Channel
UDP: User Datagram Protocol
UDVM: Universal Data Voice Multiplexer
UID: User Identifier
UPC: Utility Port Conditioner
USC: Usage Surcharge
USDN: United States Digital Network
USTS: United States Transmission Systems
UUCP: Unix to Unix Copy Program
VAN: Value Added Networks
VAX: Virtual Address Extention
VCPI: Virtual Control Program Interface
VDU: Visual Display Unit
VF: Voice Frequency
VFU: Vertical Forms Unit
VIA: Vax Information Architecture
VLM: Virtual Loadable Module
VLSI: Very Large Scale Integration
VMB: Voice Mail Box
VMCF: Virtual Machine Communications Facility
VMS: Virtual Memory System
VMS: Voice Mail System
VM/SP: Virtual Machine/System Product
VPA: VAX Performance Advisor
VPS: Voice Processing System
VSAM: Virtual Storage Access Method
VSE: Virtual Storage Extended
VTAM: Virtual Telecommunications Access Method
VTOC: Volume Table Of Contents
VUIT: Visual User Interface Tool
VUP: Vax Unit of Processsing
WAN: Wide Area Network
WATS: Wide Area Telecommunications System
WATS: Wide Area Telephone Service
WC: Wiring Center
WCPC: Wire Center Planning Center
WDCS: Wideband Digital Cross-Connect System
WDM: Wavelength Division MultiPlexing
WES: Western Electronics Switching
WUI: Western Union International
XB: Crossbar Switching
XBAR: Crossbar Switching
XBT: Crossbar Tandem
XNS Xerox Network Systems
XSV Transfer Cost System Value
XTC Extended Test Controller
Well, i sincerely hope that this file was of some use to you, and i would
encourage you to distribute it as far as you can. If you enjoyed it, hated it,
have suggestions, or whatever, feel free to email me at my Internet address(my
only permanent one for now) or at a BBS, if you can find me.
- Deicide -
Neuromancer, Mona Lisa Overdrive, Count Zero and all the rest, by William
The Hacker Crackdown, by Bruce Sterling
Cyberpunk, by Katie Hafner and John Markoff
The Cuckoo's Egg, by Cliff Stoll
2600: The best h/p printed zine. $21 in American funds, U.S. & Canada.
2600 Subscription Dept., P.O. Box 752, Middle Island NY 11953-0752
Office: 516-751-2600 Fax: 516-751-2608
The issues of CUD, cDc, & Phrack electronic newsletters, and the LOD/H TJs,
all of which can be found on the Internet and any good h/p oriented BBS.
All the material used in this publication is original unless specifically
However, i'd like to thank Phrack and the LOD/H for their textfiles
which gave me a valuable push in the right direction..
And of course all the great h/p folks who have helped me along the way..
Thanks to the EFF, for their continued support of all of the world's rights
in this technological era.
Musical inspirations: Primus, Rage Against the Machine, Jimi Hendrix, Led
Zeppelin, Dead Kennedys, White Zombie, the Beastie Boys, etc, etc.
"Yes I know my enemies. They're the teachers who taught me to fight me.
Compromise, conformity, assimilation, submission, ignorance, hypocrisy,
brutality, the elite"
- /Know Your Enemy/ © Rage Against the Machine
- Deicide - email@example.com
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