The Ultimate Cellular Phone Phreaking Manual, Part
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%%% THE ULTIMATE CELLULAR %%%
%%% PHONE PHREAKING %%%
%%% MANUAL #1 of 2. %%%
%%% COMPILED BY %%%
%%% THE RAVEN %%%
Hmmm.... Another text file.. Make sure that you keep this one for your
collection!! There is no other text file that is more complete or up-to
date that explains cellular phone phreaking like this one for 1992!!!
Since this is going to be a complete manual it has been broken-up into
2 parts so this is manual 1. I'm hoping that there will be some info.
on cellular phreaking published in PHRACK that may be able to help you and
me with our endevors but I'm waiting.
Another thing that I just found out is that the Hack/Phreak Community is
in need for a BBS that doesn't give bullshit info (most do!) and thats cause
our world has been infiltrated with narcs and telco/bell agents that try to
spread as much misinformation as possible!! But there are a few bbs's that
keep the faith and they will be listed at the end of this text.
I. Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS)
II. General Information
III. Cellular Freqs. & Channels
IV. The Cell & It's Structure
V. Equipment Description
VI. More General Info.
CELLULAR PHREAKER TYPES
There are two types of cellular phone phreakers. The first type is the one
whos's intrested in scanning cellular phone channels basically to overhear
conversations. The second type is the one who obtains and modifies cellular
equipment so that he can make free phone calls at someone elese's expense.
I. IMPROVED MOBILE TELEPHONE SERVICE
This system that was used prior to cellular phones was the Improved Mobile
Telephone Service (IMTS), which was much easier to scan for.
Most scanner enthusiasts are familiar with this standard mobile phone
system; this system has gone thru little evolution in the past decade in the
U.S. It has remained a considerably limited service. A large metro area may
only have several hundred users, (New York City has about 900 mobile phone
subscribers) dur largely to limitations imposed by spectral overcroeding.
Land mobile commo has seen a 10-12% annual growth rate for the past two
decades. The result is that the 40, 150 and 450 MHZ bands are overcrowded.
Even the utilization of the new 900 MHZ band (with 30-40 times more channels
available than other bands) is a short-lived solution to the problem.
IMTS freqs (MHZ):
Channel Base Freq. Mobile Freq.
VHF LOW BAND
ZO 35.26 43.26
ZF 35.30 43.30
ZH 35.34 43.34
ZA 35.42 43.32
ZY 35.46 43.46
ZR 35.50 43.50
ZB 35.54 43.54
ZW 35.62 43.62
ZL 35.66 43.66
JL 152.51 157.77
YL 152.54 157.80
JP 152.57 157.83
YP 152.60 157.86
YJ 152.63 157.89
YK 152.66 157.92
JS 152.69 157.95
YS 152.72 157.98
YA 152.75 158.01
JK 152.78 158.04
JA 152.81 158.07
QC 454.375 459.375
QJ 454.40 459.40
QD 454.425 459.425
QA 454.45 459.45
QE 454.475 459.475
QP 454.50 459.50
QK 454.525 459.525
QB 454.55 459.55
QO 454.575 459.575
QA 454.60 459.60
QY 454.625 459.625
QF 454.650 459.650
The VHF high-band freqs. are the most popular IMTS channels. If you live
within 25-50 miles of even a moderate sized town, you should have at least
one VHF high-band channel. VHF low-band IMTS is used in rural areas and
those with hilly terrain. UHF IMTS is primarily used in cities where the
VHF channels are crowded. If you live in a major city, expect to have most,
if not all, of these channels available to you.
II. GENERAL CELLULAR INFO
This section is a little boring but it's needed to set a basic foundation
of cellular phone phreaking so that part 2 doesn't sound like all
The FCC originally estaablished 3 cellular bands. One was given to the local
Bell or Telco, (wireline carrier), one to an independent firm (non-wireline
carrier), and one reserved for future use. Originally there were 666 cellular
freqs or channels. In recent years the FCC has tacked on another 156 freqs
for a total of 832 freqs, and all cellular makers have upgraded their phones
to accomodate the new channels. Some of the new channels appears above the
original 666 while others appear below.
The cellular system cannot know whether or not a cellular phone can be
switched to one of the 156 channels without the phone telling it. This is done
by the Station Class Mark (SCM), which is a 4-bit binary number.
(1) Bit #1 is "0" for 666 and "1" for 832
(2) Bit #2 is "0" for a mobile unit and
"1" for a voice activated transmit.
(That saves batteries on portables.)
(3) Bit #3 and #4 identify the power class
of the phone:
"00" = 3 watts
"01" = 1.2 watts
"10" = 0.6 watts
and "11" is not assigned.
The old traditional scheme for handling cellular traffic is the analog
method or Frequency-Divison Multiple Access (FDMA). How the FDMA works is
that free channels are found and each transmitter is assigned to one of them.
When the call finishes, th echannels are freed up for the next call. Also, as
the two parties become physically closer or more distant as they drive or
travhghhggytel the call may be handed off to other freqs assigned to the new cells
they are in.
Newer proposed schemes include Time-Divison Multiple Acess (TDMA) and Code-
Divison Multiple Acess (CDMA). IN TDMA systems, calls may simultaneously use
the same channels but are interspered between the pauses in the conversation.
Many pauses result not only in the way people normally think and talk but when
one party is talking, the other is listening. With TDMA, the Cellular Phone
Company (CPC) injects small delays in parts of conversations to accommodate
other traffic on that channel. This increases the lenght of the average phone
call, which also increases their profits from it - not to mention the fact
that they can increase there output by the factor of 3 and also then expand
CDMA is a system that's been used by military for the past 30+ years. CDMA
appears to basically be a system where conversation are compressed into coded
bundles and then decompressed at the other end.
A Cellular Mobile Telephone (CMT) is one that is installed in a vehicle,
aircraft, watercraft or whatever, as opposed to a transporable or portable
III. CELLULAR FREQS & CHANNELS
There are 832 cellular phone channels. 416 of these are allocated for the
non-wireline services (Band A), and 416 for the wireline services (Band B).
Each of these channels have two freqs, spaced 45 MHZ apart, that operate in
a full-duplex mode. The lower freq is for the phone unit, while the upper is
for the cell or basesite. Of the 416 channels, 21 are digital data control or
"set up" channels and 395 are voice channels. Channels are numbered 1 thru
1023, and there is a gap from 800 to 990.
Rather than producing a list of 1646 cellular freqs, I have provided the math
eqations that can be used to calculate them. These equations can be programmed
into computers and calculators.
N = Cellular Channel # F = Cellular Freq
B = 0 (mobile), or B = 1 (base)
CELLULAR FREQS from CHANNEL #S:
F = 825.030 + B*45 + (N-1)*.03
WHERE: n = 1 to 799
F = 824.040 + b*45 + (N-1)*.03
where: N = 991 to 1023
CELLULAR CHANNEL #s from FREQS:
N = 1 + (F-825.030-B*45)/.03
Where: F > = 825.030 (mobile)
or F > = 870.030 (base)
N = 991 + (F-824.040-B*45)/.03
Where: F < = 825.000 (mobile)
or F < = 870.000 (base)
If the system uses OMNICELLS, as most do, you can readily find all the
channels in a cell if you know just one of them, using tables constructed
from these equations. Band A uses channels 1-333 under the old 666-channel
system. To that have been added 667-716 and 991-1023 under the new 832-channel
system. Band B uses channels from 334-666 under the old system, plus 717-799
under the new system.
IV. CONTROL & VOICE CHANNEL ALLOCATIONS
(D=DESIGNATOR, CC=CONTROL CHANNEL, VC=VOICE CHANNEL)
NON-WIRLELINE SERVICES (BAND A)
D = 1A : CC = 313 : VC = 1,22,43,64,85,106,127,148,169,190,211,232,253,274,
D = 2A : CC = 314 : VC = 2,23,44,65,86,107,128,149,170,191,212,233,254,275
D = 3A : CC = 315 : VC = 3,24,45,66,87,108,129,150,171,192,213,234,255,276
D = 4A : CC = 316 : VC = 4,25,46,67,88,109,130,151,172,193,214,235,256,277
D = 5A : CC = 317 : VC = 5,26,47,68,89,110,131,152,173,194,215,236,257,278
D = 6A : CC = 318 : VC = 6,27,48,69,90,111,132,153,174,195,216,237,258,279
D = 7A : CC = 319 : VC = 7,28,49,70,91,112,133,154,175,196,217,238,259,280
D = 1B : CC = 320 : VC = 8,29,50,71,92,113,134,155,176,197,218,239,260,281
D = 2B : CC = 321 : VC = 9,30,51,72,93,114,135,156,177,198,219,240,261,282
D = 3B : CC = 322 : VC = 10,31,52,73,94,115,136,157,178,199,220,241,262,283
D = 4B : CC = 323 : VC = 11,32,53,74,95,116,137,158,179,200,221,242,263,284
D = 5B : CC = 324 : VC = 12,33,54,75,96,117,138,159,180,201,222,243,264,285
D = 6B : CC = 325 : VC = 13,34,55,76,97,118,139,160,181,202,223,244,265,286
D = 7B : CC = 326 : VC = 14,35,56,77,98,119,140,161,182,203,224,245,266,287
D = 1C : CC = 327 : VC = 15,36,57,78,99,120,141,162,183,204,225,246,267,288
D = 2C : CC = 328 : VC = 16,37,58,79,100,121,142,163,184,205,226,247,268,289
D = 3C : CC = 329 : VC = 17,38,59,80,101,122,143,164,185,206,227,248,269,290
D = 4C : CC = 330 : VC = 18,39,60,81,102,123,144,165,186,207,228,249,270,291
D = 5C : CC = 331 : VC = 19,40,61,82,103,124,145,166,187,208,229,250,271,292
D = 6C : CC = 332 : VC = 20,41,62,83,104,125,146,167,188,209,230,251,272,293
D = 7C : CC = 333 : VC = 21,42,63,84,105,126,147,168,189,210,231,252,273,294
WIRELINE SERVICES (BAND B)
D = 1A : CC = 334 : VC = 355,376,397,418,439,460,481,502,523,544,565,586,607
D = 2A : CC = 335 : VC = 356,377,398,419,440,461,482,503,524,545,566,587,608
D = 3A : CC = 336 : VC = 357,378,399,420,441,462,483,504,525,546,567,588,609
D = 4A : CC = 337 : VC = 358,379,400,421,442,463,484,505,526,547,568,589,610
D = 5A : CC = 338 : VC = 359,380,401,422,443,464,485,506,527,548,569,590,611
D = 6A : CC = 339 : VC = 360,381,402,423,444,465,486,507,528,549,570,591,612
D = 7A : CC = 340 : VC = 361,382,403,424,445,466,487,508,529,550,571,592,613
D = 1B : CC = 341 : VC = 362,383,404,425,446,467,488,509,530,551,572,593,614
D = 2B : CC = 342 : VC = 363,384,405,426,447,468,489,510,531,552,573,594,615
D = 3B : CC = 343 : VC = 364,385,406,427,448,469,490,511,532,553,574,595,616
D = 4B : CC = 344 : VC = 365,386,407,428,449,470,491,512,533,554,575,596,617
D = 5B : CC = 345 : VC = 366,387,408,429,450,471,492,513,534,555,576,597,618
D = 6B : CC = 346 : VC = 367,388,409,430,451,472,493,514,535,556,577,598,619
D = 7B : CC = 347 : VC = 368,389,410,431,452,473,494,515,536,557,578,599,620
D = 1C : CC = 348 : VC = 369,390,411,432,453,474,495,515,537,558,579,600,621
D = 2C : CC = 349 : VC = 370,391,412,433,454,475,496,516,538,559,580,601,622
D = 3C : CC = 350 : VC = 371,392,413,434,455,476,497,517,539,560,581,602,623
D = 4C : CC = 351 : VC = 372,393,414,435,456,477,498,518,540,561,582,603,624
D = 5C : CC = 352 : VC = 373,394,415,436,457,478,499,519,541,562,583,604,625
D = 6C : CC = 353 : VC = 374,395,416,437,458,479,500,520,542,563,584,605,626
D = 7C : CC = 354 : VC = 375,396,417,438,459,480,501,522,543,564,585,606,627
To summarize how a cellular call is made: A mobile unit wishing to make a
call will go off-hook and then transmit the digital source and destination
codes on a control channel (used to set-up and monitor the call), and are
just strong enough to reach the base station in the local cell. Upon getting
this data, the base, thru its control freq (same channel), validates the
The base station then fowards a message to the central switching office on
a land line, which in turn sends the paging signal to all cells in search of
the second mobile unit whos number has been dialed. When the destination unit
is finally found, it responds to the paging signal by transmitting an
acknowledgement code to its local base station on a control channel.
The switching center then assigns a pair of unused freqs (called the,
"channel Pair") to each of the unit for actual voice commo to take place.
These channel pairs are not neccesarily the same for the respective cells
that each mobile unit is in. These freqs are also relayed thru the base
stations and to the central switching office.
When a unit moves into another cell, things get very interesting. Upon
entry into another cell, the mobile unit must transmit thru a new base
station. An automatic handoff to the new base station is carried out by
another exchange of data thru the control channel.
Termination of the call is a simple matter. When the call ends,ON-hook
signals are exchanged via the control channels between the mobile unit and
the base station. The voice channels are then cleared.
IV. THE CELL & IT'S STRUCTURE
The cellular phone system uses a "honeycombed" hexagonal cell architure.
Each of the cell types (A-G) differ from each other only in the freqs.
allocated for them. This represents how a cellular system might be laid out.
Cells A and B never share a common border. Neither do B and C, A and G,
etc. Cells that are next to each other are never assigned adjacent freqs.
They always differbu\y at least 60 KHZ. To track a mobile phone as it
changes cells, lets put the mobile in a B cell. When the mobile switches
freqs. you know that it could only go to a D, E, F, or G cell because A and
C have adjacent freqs. The two tables below will help you determine which
Channel cell can go next to each other. You can contact your local cellular
phone company and see if they have any maps of the cell available in your
area (please get a copy for us also). They're not obligated to give you maps
but it's worth the try.
Cell Adjacent cells
The only fundamental point of cellular technology actually agreed upon to
date is that a given service area will be divided into identical adjacent
cells with no overlaps and no gaps. The hexagon is the standard cell
patteren. At the center of an individual cell is a base station which is
conected via land line to a local mobile phone switching office. Certain
freq bands are assigned to certain cells, but not shared with adjacent cells
to avoid mutual interference.
In 1979, AT&T began test marketing its version of a cellular phone system
in Chicago. This system is call the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS)
Some 2100 sq miles of the metro Chicago area are divided into 10 cells to
serve about 2000 customers. Full duplex is possible by using a pair of one
way channels separated by 45 MHZ to connect the mobile units with the base
stations. The RF range is 825-890 MHZ and normal narrow band FM is used to
transmit voice. Hand-off to adjacent cells is accomplished by monitoring
signal strengths. When the central switching office determines that a new
base station receives the mobile signal better than the previous one, the
switching office signals thru the voice channel for the mobile phone to
switch to a new channel. Commo distruption thru the switching process is
typically 50 milliseconds.
As with IMTS, there is the possibility of phreaking calls with IMTS or AMPS
simply by monitoring the control channels since they are in dial pulse form.
After you have a nice set of numbers, you will neeed a transmitter of
sufficient strenght to reach the base station (unlicenced transmitter of
Many regulatory and implementation issues remain unsolved. Modulation issues
are the biggest problem to be solved. Single sideband AM, narrow band FM,
digital and spread-spectrum techniques are all being considered. If you have
any info that may be able to break this down for fellow hackers/phreaks
please leave me mail.
V. EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
Most mobile phones have two primary pieces of equipment. These are the
transceiver (transmitter-receiver pair) and the control head.
The transceiver is usually a metal box with three connectors. They usually
contain two circuit boards. One is the transceiver unit itself, and the other
is a logic board consisting of a uP, ADC and DAC, and control logic. The
transceiver is usually mounted in the trunk or sometimes under the hood, and
is connected to both the ignition switch and car battery. A control/audio
(shielded) links the equipment together.
The control head is a touch-tone phone handset with the extended keypad,
alphanumeric display and controls (i.e. mike, volume). Usually there is a
separate speaker installed in the cradle for on-hook dialing, call progress
monitoring and speakerphone operation. If the CMT has a speaker phone option
a small mike is usually mounted to the sun visor. Some cellular phones are
voice-activated. If battery-operated, this saves the battery and also makes
answering the phone easier. The control head and cradle assembly is usually
bolted to the hump between the two front seats for security purposes.
Most early CMT's use the AMPS bus (developed by AT&T) which uses a system
of 36 wires in a rather bulky and stiff control/audio cable. Some makers now
use their own bus, such as Novatel's serial bus, which specifies a thin cable
consisting of a few wires, and is much easier to install and dependable to
use. In almost all cases, a CMT is powered by regulated 12 volts from standard
13.8 volt car battery. At least 5 amps (continuous) is required.
Mobile cellular antennas are usually short (less than one foot long),
vertically-mounted stiff wire with a few turns in the middle that acts as a
phasing coil in a 5/8-wave configuration. The antenna is generally mounted
either thru a hole in the roof or at the top of the rear winshield using
silicone rubber cement with conductive plates on both sides to pass the RF
thru the glass (some RF losses result from this method but you don't have to
maim your vehcle). A 50 ohm coax cable (ex: RG-58/U) links the antenna to the
transceiver with a male TNC type UHF connector. A ceramic duplexer permits
the transmitter and receiver to share the same antennas at the same time.
CMT roof-mounted monopole antennas are designed to work with the ground
plane (ie: the vehicle's body, if metal). However, for fixed (ie: home-base)
use, an "extended-feed" or voltage-fed coaxial antenna (requires no ground
plane) can be used. A capped PVC pipe makes an ideal rooftop housing for
this type of antenna-both weatherprofing and concealing it. Note that altho
cellular systems are designed for inefficient antennas, for fixed use it is
preferred that you use the best antenna you can get.
Interfacing audio devices (ex Blue Boxes, other tone generators) to a CMT
can be done by coupling the device's output thru an audio coupling
transformer wired across the control head's mike lines. A 600-ohm audio
coupling antenna is availble from Radio Shack (273-1374). Be sure to DC
isolate the phon circuity by wiring the transformer in series with a
non-polarized capacitor of at least 1.0 uF and 50 volts. If you can locate
the bus that carries the audio, then coupling across it is preferred.
An acoustic modem can be coupled to a CMT eithrer thru the mouthpiece or by
connecting the mike and speaker wires to those in the control head or bus
lines. Any direct-connect devices (ex: answering machines, modems, standard
phones, etc) can be connected to a CMT thru the AB1X cellular interface
made by : Morrison & Dempsey (818 993-0195). This expensive device is
basically a 1-line PBX that connects between the transceiver and control
head and provides an RJ-11C (quick-connect) jack that accepts any direct-
connect phone accessory. It recognizes both touch-tone and pulse dialing,
provides the ringing voltage and generates dial and busy tones as needed.
VI. GENERAL PHREAKING INFO
* Control Channel: The channel the phone and cell base first communicate on.
* Reverse Control Channel: The opposite freq, 45MHZ lower then the control
channel. This is where the mobile unit is.
* Voice Channel: The channel you are assigned by the switch to start the call
after the exchange of suscriber data.
* Revese Voice Channel: Again 45 MHZ lower.
* Switch: The computer that places the calls, and takes and receiver data
from the subcriber or from the PSTN. (Pubic Swithced Telephone Network). That
should get things started. A suscriber picks up his handset to place a call.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
The following questions & answers were taken from THE SOURCE BBS a.k.a.
THE NEW YORK HACK EXCHANGE
BCOM> I want to get into cellular phone phreaking but I dont know anything so
I'm depending on you guys to help me out from the VERY basics!
What is cellular; a cellular phone?
RAVEN> A 800 MHZ radiotelephone, running 3 watts, with the ability to change
channel on computer command from the central swith. This happens when
you travel thru the service area and your signal becomes stronger at a
neighboring cell base station.
BCOM> They are marketed as a high security device with no possibility of
anyone making a phoney call & charging it to someone else, how can it
RAVEN> An understanding of the phone revels that every time a call is made,
the phone number, an electronic serial number, and oother data is sent
to the switch. If you were to listen to the opposite side of the
control channel as the cell is being "set up" you would hear this data
being transmitted to the switdch in NRZ (Non-Return to Zero) code.
All one has to do, is record this info and program the bogus phone to
these params, and then a free call is possible thru the switch.
BCOM> Has anyone done this yet?
RAVEN> HELL YEA! about 6 months after the first cellular phone system was
"turned-up", a technician programmed a Panasonic telephone with a
NEC ESN (Electronic Serial Number). And there have been many other
cases since then. With the popular ROM programmers avaible today,
almost any NAM (NUmeric Assignment Module) can be duplicated or
copied with changes. (The NAM is the heart of the billing info and
contains the phone number but not the ESN) The most popular integrated
circut for NAMs is the 74LS123.
BCOM> Sounds like a lot of trouble, is there easier ways to get service?
RAVEN> SURE, the cellphone companies have been their own downfall, In an
effort to market their wares as a universal service. Nobody can tell
if a phone from another city (that has a roaming agreement) is valid
until its too late. The only thing they could do after finding out is
block any call with bad ESN because as we know, the phone number is
easy to change, but the ESN is not.
So here's a likely scenario====> A roamer identifying itself as a number
from a Chicago non-wireline accesses a cellular system in Dallas. An operator
may intervene but you can usually BS or "Social Engineer" them as long as
you know the data you have programmed into your phone. Then you make calls
just like your a local user. If your found out, you change the number to
another, and see if that works.
The phone is locked onto the strongest control channel in the area by a
computerized scanner in the phone. As the user drives thru the service, a
computer constantly picks out the strongest control channel and stays on it,
altho more than one cell site can actually be herd. The subcriber enters
the number to call on the keypad, and presses the "send" button.
At this time the following data is transmitted to the cell site by the
mobile. The callers ESN, his home system number (two digits), his mobile's
area code and phone number, and the called number. The cellular switch now
picks up an outgoing line, places the call for him and tells the mobile unit
to switch to a voice channel. The two ends are linked in the central switch
and the two parties are connected up in about 3 seconds.
I have purposely over-simplified the whole process to point out the moment
of truth. The mobile's ESN and phone number and data in the switch must match
or no go. This is required for billing purposes. If one had the ESN and the
mobile phone number, he could then calll anytime anyplace without fear of a
trace - let alone a bill. The ideal setup would let you listen to the reverse
control channel, record and display herd working numbers and ESN's, and
recall them as one needs them to make calls.
This would be it but we are not quite there yet. But some hard work has
already been done for us. All the aforementioned codes are sent in hex, in
NRZ code (phancy term for phase shift keying), but the phone already has, for
example, a NRZ receiver and transmitter built right into it. All that has to
be done is to have a receiver on the reverse control channel, recover the
other users data and save it or at least print it out.
The mobile radio data book show some good technical info on the systems used
and chip part numbers for the NRZ stuff. For example, at least one cellular
phone maker uses the 8085 chip for the control head functions - a popular
and well understood chip by many.
Most cellular phones include a crude password system to keep unauthorized
users from using the phone - however, dealers often set the password (usually
a 3 to 5 digit code) to the last four digits of the mobile phone or there
home phone. If you can find it somewhere on the phone then your in luck!!
If you can't find it then I guess you gotta hack it. It souldn't be that
hard since most people aren't smart enogh to use something besides "11111",
"12345", or whatever, it will be like Hacking a VMB.
If you want to modify the chip set in the cellular phoneyou got, there are
two chips (of course this depends on the model and maker - your may be
different) that will need to be changed - one installed by the maker usually
eepoxied in with the phone's ID number, and one installed by the dealer with
the phone number, and possible the security code. To do this youll obviously
need an EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) burner, as well as the
same type of chips used in the phone (or a friendly & unscruplus dealer!).
As to recording the numbers of other mobile phone customers and using them;
as far as I know it is quite possible, if you got the equipment to record and
decode it. The cellular system would possibly freak out if two phones (with
valid ID/phone number combinations) were both present in the network at once,
but it remains to be seen what will happen.
The MIN is the Mobile Identification Number (includes the phone number, and
it is stored on the NAM ROM). Stolen and spoofed ESN's and MINs are good for
about a month. Once a bad MIN is revealed, the legit user's MIN is changed
by the Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) and they arrange for a new
NAM ROM to be installed in the users legit unit. Of course MTSO keeps a
database of all legit,illegit and deadbeat MIN/ESN pairs. However, the MTSO
will allow a illegit MIN/ESN pair to continue to function beyond its
discovery in hopes of discovering who the phreaks are.
One of the properties of cellular phone system is that the transmitter
freqs may be changed or "hopped" in the constant effort to allocate freqs.
Because of freq. hopping it is very difficult triangulate a CMT using
standard RF directional finding methods. It is known that a directional
antenna randomly aimed at cellsite repeaters will confuse directional finding
equipment being used by them that is synced to their freq. hopping scheme.
Since cellular technology often results in physical seperation between the
caller and-or callled party from landlines, because it offers thousands of
lines to choose from, because freq. hopping occurs, and because the caller
and-or called party can be rapidly moving from one location to another,
cellular phnes are the safest form of phreaking. "Roaming" is one form of
Roaming occurs when a CMT is used in a cellular system other than the one
indicated in the NAMs SID. This is called "ROAMmode", and the ROAM indicator
on the control head will light. A CMT can roam into any system its home CPC
has a roaming agreement with, and most CPC's now have roam agreements with
each other. Not every system pays attention to a "Roamer" from outside the
system as cosely as they do a local suscriber. In their mad rush to offer
cellular as "universal" service, they screwed up. If there's no roam
agreement, the MTSO will transmit a recorded message to the CMT with some
instructions to call the CPC, and gives his name ,MIN,ESN and credit card
number. All roamed calls will then be completed by the MTSO and billed to the
credit card account. This procedure is becomming less common as more roam
agreements are made.
Usually, CPC can only determine if a roamer came from a system with which
it has a roaming agreement - nit the creditworthiness of the roamer.
Consequently, many CPCs have been ripped-off by roamers who've been denied
service on their home system because they are deadbeats. Once the home CPC
is billed for the roaming services provided by the remote CPC to the phreaker
or deadbeat, it will notify the same to add that ESN/MIN pair to their
MTSO's "negative verify" file to prevent future abuses.
Several independent firms are establishing systems software and data
networks to allow POSITIVE ROAMER VERIFICATION (PRV), which allow near real
time roamer validation bt sharing data between CPCs. Until PRV becomes
universal, even bogus ESNs and MINs can roam if they follow the standard
format, alto some CPCs are sharing roam data on a limited basis to prevent
this. Even with PRV, ESN/MIN pairs that are spoofed to match valid accounts
will be accepted both by thier home CPC and roamed CPCs, until the legit
customer complains about the calls he didn't make. And even without PRV,
some CPCs automatically share ESN and MIN data. This frequently occurs
between the CPCs in major cities and those in their bedroom communities.
To call a roaming CMT, the caller must know which system that unit is in,
which can be a real trick since he may be on the road at the time. He then
calls the CPC's roaming number. Roaming numbers vary but usually are in the
phone number format (with area code, with the last four digits being
"ROAM", and with the 3 middle digits being the remote CPC's exchange).
When that number is called, a dial or ready tone is returned, after
which the roaming CMT's full MIN is entered in Touch-Tone. After several
seconds, the CMT will ring or the caller will hear a recording stating
that the roaming CMT is out of range or busy. Telocator Publications
(202) 467-4770 publishes a nationwide roaming directory for travellers
with celluar phones.
For example: I access the Cleveland Ohio Cellular 1's Ericcson switch
and I tell them by my NAM INfo that I'm a roamer from NYNEX in New York
City. Cleveland will let me make the call, bacause it bills back to NYC
for the number of minutes I use. If the NYC number is bogus , the call
goes thru anyway, and the bill doesn't go anywhere. They do know the
exchange data for NYC (that's on a chart) so you can't tell them a wrong
system number (two digits) but one that a valid roamer would have from
his area. This is not too hard to figure out, call some of their stupid
sales idiots some time and see what they let out of the bag.
The system number for the foreign exchange, NYNEX in Buffalo is 56,
Chicago nonwireline is 01, and Buffalo nonwireline is 03. All wirelines
are even numbers and all nonwirelines are odd. The first three digits
of the mobile number: NYNEX Buffalo 863-XXXX. Buffalo Non-wirelines
are 861-XXXX and 690-XXXX.
You dont have to be a rocket scientist to figure out the local numbers
for your area, again by conning the sales people. Until the CPC's get a
cellular clearinghouse to validate roamers in real time, this method
will work out fine. It will be awhile before it becomes routine to look
up a roamer. There's simply to many to look up every time service is
wanted. And this problem is increasing because of the expanding use of
If a cellular phone and its antenna happen to fall into your hands, you
could re-nam it as a roamer and when you get it setup, make copies of the
info with different suscriber numbers (the last 4 digits) and make free
calls as long as you can.
THe Novatel series phone a re probaly the best radios to use to shut down
a cell site completely as it has secret codes in the control head that
allow you to bypass conventional switching protocols.
I hope that this file has lived up the all the boasting I've put into it.
But if there are any problems with the freqs. or anything you can leave me
mail on the bbs's I've listed. At this time Demon Roach and Nihilism dont
carry my files but you can still leave me mail on those boards!
Thats it for part 1 but look out for part 2!!
Part 2 will cover: What's in a NAM, NAM reprogramming and how to
reprogram the following phones: DIAMONDTEL MESA90X & MESA99X HANDHELD,
GATEWAY CP 900 HANDHELD, GENERAL ELECTRIC MINI II & MINI ,
MITSUBISHI 800 & 900 , MOTOROLA 8000H & ULTRA CLASSIC HANDHELD,
NEC P300 & NEC P9100 , NOVATEL PTR800 & 825 , OKI HANDHELD MODEL #750,
OKI HANDHELD MODEL #900 , PANASONIC EB3500 , COLT TRANSPORTABLE ,
DIAMONDTEL MESA 55 & MESA 95 TRANSPORTABLE , FUJITSU MOBILE PHONE ,
GENERAL ELECTRIC CARFONE XR3000 , GOLDSTAR SERIES 5000 MOBILE ,
MITSUBUSHI 555,560,600 , NEC M3700 SERIES MOBILE , NOKIA LX-11 & M-10 ,
NOVATEL 8305 TRANSPORTABLE CA08 SOFTWARE VERSION , OKI CDL400 ,
PANASONIC EB362 , PANASONIC EB500 OR TP-500 , RADIO SHACK 17-1002 & -1003 ,
AND GE CARFONE MODELS CF-1000, CF-2000 & CF-2500
So look for it at a BBS near you!!
And as for all of you guys that wanted to know how I got money for most of
the thing I have well all I can say is look for me next file:
Check Fraud (ckfraud.txt)
to put it simple $32,000 in one day! And as you know...No BullShit!!